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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: How communication affects prescription decisions in consultations for acute illness in children: a systematic review and meta-ethnography

      Consultation sample   
Primary Reference Associated publications Focus Data collection methods Analysis methods No. Paediatric or mixed Illness Location Consultation participants Study quality
Elwyn 1999 [33] [34] Shared decision making in situations of conflict Two case studies. Audio recorded consultations. Discourse analysis 2 Paediatric URTI UK 2 Children (2–8 yrs) 3 Parents 1 GP from 1 clinic High credibility. Insufficient information to assess typicality. Transferability limited to similar cases.
Stivers 2000 [35] [12, 14, 15, 3640] Communication practices used by parents and paediatricians Convenience sample. 295 audio recorded & 65 video recorded consultations. 1996–1997. Conversation analysis 360 Paediatric RTI USA Children (2–10 yrs) Parents (Demographic data for 295: avg. age: 38 yrs; avg. edu: 16 yrs; 75% affluent households; 69% White; all English speakers) 14 Clinicians from 6 clinics High credibility. Likely to be typical. Limited transferability to similar populations.
Rollnick 2001 [41]   Language, skills and strategies used in everyday URTI consultations Audio recorded consultations. Verbal ‘moves’ used by doctors identified. 29 Paediatric URTI UK Children (<11 yrs) Parents 5 GPs from 1 clinic Insufficient information to assess credibility, transferability and dependability.
Main 2001 [42] [43, 44] Effects of family context on care and physician-patient communication Purposive selection of clinics. Direct observation of consultations. 1996 & 1999 Emerging patterns of physician-patient interaction were identified. 37 Mixed Acute RTI USA Children (<16 yrs) Parents >50 Clinicians from >18 clinics High credibility. Insufficient information to assess transferability of these findings.
Barry 2001 [45] [46, 47] Patient expectations, consultation behaviour and prescription Purposive sample of clinicians. Audio recorded consultations & interviews with parents and clinicians. 1996–1998. Conversation analysis 35 Mix Mix UK 6 Children (<12 yrs) Parents 20 GPs from 20 clinics High credibility. Insufficient information to assess typicality and transferability.
Tates 2002 [48] [49, 50] Co-construction of roles and interaction Video recorded. 3 time periods: 1975–78; 1988–89; 1993 Conversation analysis 106 Paediatric Mix Netherlands 106 Children (<12 yrs) 106 Parents (88 mothers) 58 Clinicians High credibility. Insufficient information to assess transferability.
Butler 2004 [51]   GPs’ current practice regarding prognosis Convenience sample. Audio recorded consultations. Prognosis communication extracted. 59 Paediatric RTI UK Children (<11 yrs) Parents 9 GPs from 2 clinics Insufficient information to assess credibility, typicality or transferability.
Roberts 2005 [52]   Method of theme oriented discourse analysis Two case studies. Audio or video recorded consultations. Discourse analysis 2 Mix Mix Not stated 1 Child 1 Parent 1 Clinician High credibility. Insufficient information to assess transferability or typicality.
Nova 2005 [53]   Quality of the paediatric interaction. Videos recorded consultations. 2003. Discourse analysis 10 Paediatric Mix Italy 10 Children (2–6 yrs) >6 Parents Clinicians (no information given) High credibility. Insufficient information to assess transferability or typicality.
Stivers 2005 [16] [5459] Parent resistance to no antibiotic treatment Cross-sectional sample. Video recorded consultations. 2000 & 2001. Conversation analysis 309 Paediatric URTI USA Children (6 m to 10 yrs) 543 Parents (avg. age: 34 yrs; 53% latino; 28% white; 12% African-American; 7% Asian; 16% high school not completed; 60% high school completed; 24% graduates) 38 Paediatricians from 27 clinics High credibility. Insufficient information to assess transferability or typicality.
Cahill 2007 [11]   Child participation in consultations Purposive sample of practices. Video recorded consultations. 2004 & 2005 Conversation analysis 31 Paediatric Not stated UK 31 Children (6–12 yrs) Parents 16 GPs High credibility. Limited transferability to similar populations is likely.
Butler 2009 [60]   How nurses deliver advice on telehealth line Purposive selection of calls. Audio recorded. 2005 –2006. Conversation analysis 6 Paediatric Mix Australia 6 Children 6 Parents 12 Nurses High credibility. Likely to be transferable to other similar interactions.
Ijas-Kallio 2011 [61] [6265] Patients participation in diagnosis and treatment decision Audio or video recorded consultations. 2005–2006. Conversation analysis 46 Mix RTI Finland 46 Children Parents 11 Clinicians from 9 clinics High credibility. Insufficient information to assess transferability or typicality.