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Table 4 Analysis of included studies with regard to complexity

From: Complexity as a factor for task allocation among general practitioners and nurse practitioners: a narrative review

SourcePatient PopulationSettingProfessionalsNP role
Qualitative study design
 O’Brien et al. 2008, USunspecificunspecificmedical doctors & advanced practice nursesNP is supervised and mentored by doctor
 Parker et al. [24], AUunspecificunspecific: primary health careGP & NPCollaborator with GP in primary health care
 O’Malley et al. [25], USunspecificPCMHadministrative staff, LPN, MA, NCM, NP, PA, physician, practice manager primary care experts, RNVaries depending on practice, some are lead clinicians while others share care with physician
 Van der Biezen et al. [26], NLunspecificunspecific: general practices, GPCGP, managers, NP/PASubstitute and supplement in general practice and substitute in out-of-hours care in GPC (Substitute and Supplement)
 Lovink et al. [27], NLolder adultsunspecific: general practice & communityRN, NP & GPIndependent care providers, shared responsibility with GP, part of multidisciplinary team
 Boman et al. [28], NO/FIolder adultsunspecific: primary health careGP, NP & nurseAutonomous role within scope of practice and linking role between nurses and physicians; patient and health services; and to evidence-based practice.
 Côté et al. [29], CAunspecificunspecific: primary health careGP & NPPart of multidisciplinary primary care teams
 Pelletier et al. [30], CAunspecificunspecific: primary health careGP, RN & NPPart of primary health care team
Quantitative study designs
 Ohman-Strickland et al. [31], USdiabeticsunspecific: family medicine practicesNP/PA & physicianStaff member
 Everett et al. [32], USunspecificunspecific: outpatient practicesdoctor & NP/PAPrimary care provider substitute to underserved patients with a range of disease severity
 Subramanian et al. [33], USdiabeticsVHANP/PA & physicianIndependent primary care provider
 Yarnall et al. [34], USunspecific theoretical panelunspecific: ambulatory medical practicesNP/PA & physicianMember of primary care team
 Chung et al. [35], USunspecificunspecific: GP practiceNP/PA & PCPPart of medical practice
 Mian et al. [36], CAunspecificCHC, family health teams, family practice unitsFP, mental health worker, NP/PHCNP, social workerFP and NP have interdependent roles in which NP is responsible for less complex care
 Morgan et al. [37], USunspecificVHANP/PA & physicianPrimary care provider
 Donelan et al. [38], USunspecificunspecific: primary care practicesNP & physicianPractices with NPs describe them as a member of a collaborative pracitce.
 Everett et al. [39], USmedicare diabeticsunspecific: various practicesNP/PA & physicianSupplement provider and usual provider (Substitute)
 Everett et al. [40], USmedicare diabeticsunspecific: various practicesNP/PA & physicianSupplement provider and usual provider (Substitute)
 Dahrouge et al. [41], CAunspecificCHCFP & NPConsultative care, in which they NPs are substitutes; or shared care, in which NPs are supplements(Substitute and Supplement)
 Ku et al. [42], USunspecificCHClab staff, MA, NP/PA, physician, radiology staffMember of staff with full, partial or restricted legal scope of practice
 Kuo et al. [43], USdiabeticsunspecific: primary care in communitiesNP & PCPCare provider
 Park [44], USunspecificPCMH and non-PCMHNP/PA & physicianComplemental care provider
 Reckrey et al. [45], USAhomeboundhome-based primary careadministrative assistant, NP, physician, RN, social workerTeam member with flexible role
 Marcum et al. [46, 47], USchronically illunspecific: primary care group practicesNP/PA & PCPPrimary care provider
 Raji et al. [48], USmedicare, chronically illunspecific: various practicesMD & NPIndependent primary care provider
 Van der Biezen et al. [49], NLunspecificunspecific: GPCGP & NPSubstitute in out-of-hours care
 D’Afflitti et al. [50], USunspecificunspecific: general internal medicine practiceGP & NPGP and NP teams co-managing medically complex patients
 Yang et al. [51], USdiabeticsVHAGP, PA & NPPrimary care provider
 Morgan et al. [52], USdiabeticsVHANP/PA & physicianPrimary care provider
Other study designs
 Fletcher et al. (mixed methods) [53], USunspecificVHANP & physician/MD/ doctorAccording to NPs they practice autonomously with physician back up. According to physicians NPs are physician extenders. (Supplement)
 Dierick-van Daele et al. (mixed methods) [54], NLunspecificunspecific: single practice, group practice, health centreGP & NPCollaborator in a team, role dependent on practice needs and incentives (Supplement)
 Sustaita et al. (review) [55], USunspecificunspecific: various practicesNP & physicianIndependent providers with a unique approach to health care who do not substitute physicians (Supplement)
 Freund et al. (comparison) [56], NLunspecificunspecific: primary practicesGP, NP, extended role practice nurse, practice nurse/auxiliaryPart of primary care team focusing on minor illnesses.
 Helms et al. (case study) [57], AUunspecificunspecific: bulk-billing health care cooperativeNP & GPCollaborator, providing complimentary care
 Bodenheimer & Bauer (perspective) [2, 58], USunspecificunspecific: primary care practice in the USphysician, NP, RN, PAApproximation of that of a physician’s, primary care practitioner
 Hunter et al. (mixed methods) [59], CAunspecificunspecific: rural community practiceHCP, healthcare leaders, NP, PCPCollaborator with PCP and HCP (Supplement and Substitute)
 Collins (mixed methods) [60], UKunspecificunspecific: out-of-hours careGP & NPPrimary care provider
  1. Sources: US United States, NL Netherlands, CA Canada
  2. Settings: VHA Veteran’s Health Association, PCMH Patient-centred medical home, GPC General practitioner cooperative, CHC Community health clinicProfessionals: NP Nurse practitioner, MD Medical doctor, GP General practitioners, FP Family physician, PCP Primary care physician, PA Physician assistant, HCP Health care professionals, LPN Licensed practice nurse, MA Medical assistant, NCM Nurse care manager, RN Registered nurse, PHCNP Primary health care nurse practitioner