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Table 3 Healthcare utilization patients in 2013 and one-year all-cause mortality (k = 6)

From: Identifying heterogeneous health profiles of primary care utilizers and their differential healthcare utilization and mortality – a retrospective cohort study

Healthcare utilization / mortality a Class 1
Relatively healthy
Class 2
Stable metabolic disease
Class 3
Metabolic disease with vascular complications
Class 4
High respiratory disease burden
Class 5
High metabolic disease without complication
Class 6
Metabolic disease with multi-organ complication
Overall p-value
Number of primary care outpatient clinic visits, (SD) 2.0 (3.9) 5.3 (3.9) 6.0 (5.5) 4.7 (6.0) 6.2 (4.2) 4.9 (7.6) 3.5 (4.4) < 0.001
Number of outpatient specialist clinic visit, (SD) 1.6 (4.6) 2.7 (5.9) 4.7 (7.8) 3.8 (7.5) 2.6 (5.7) 8.6 (11.9) 2.2 (5.5) < 0.001
Number of hospital admission, (SD) 0.1 (0.4) 0.1 (0.5) 0.5 (1.1) 0.3 (0.9) 0.1 (0.5) 1.0 (1.7) 0.1 (0.5) < 0.001
Number of emergency department visits, (SD) 0.1 (0.5) 0.1 (0.6) 0.5 (1.8) 0.6 (2.0) 0.2 (0.6) 1.0 (1.8) 0.1 (0.7) < 0.001
One-year all-cause mortality 179 (0.3) 207 (0.8) 139 (4.7) 19 (1.7) 125 (1.1) 92 (8.9) 761 (0.8) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation
  2. aKruskal Wallis test or ANOVA test was used to compare healthcare utilization between the 6 classes while Chi-Square test was used to compare the mortality data among the classes