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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study cohort by exposure variable: CHC attendance

From: Iron deficiency among low income Canadian toddlers: a cross-sectional feasibility study in a Community Health Centre and non-Community Health Centre sites

Variable Total Attends CHCa Does not attend CHCa
Total sample 906 31 (3.4) 875 (96.6)
Age (months) 19.5 (12.2, 36.5) 26.2 (12.9, 36.4) 19.2 (12.2, 36.5)
Sex, male 481 (53.1) 14 (45.2) 467 (53.4)
Maternal Ethnicity
 European 623 (68.8) 22 (71.0) 601 (68.7)
 Asian 165 (18.2) 1 (3.2) 164 (18.7)
 African/Caribbean/ Latin American 68 (7.5) 3 (9.7) 65 (7.4)
 Indigenous 4 (0.4) 2 (6.5) 2 (0.2)
 Missing 46 (5.1) 3 (9.7) 43 (4.9)
Child immigration status
 Canadian 858 (94.7) 31 (100) 827 (94.5)
 Landed immigrant 20 (2.2) 0 20 (2.3)
 Missing 28 (3.1) 0 28 (3.2)
Self-report family income
 $0–29,999 54 (6.0) 19 (61.3) 35 (4.0)
 $30,000-79,999 85 (9.4) 6 (19.4) 79 (9.0)
  ≥ $80,000 469 (51.8) 2 (6.5) 467 (53.4)
 Missing 298 (32.9) 4 (12.9) 294 (33.6)
Maternal education
 High school or less 83 (9.2) 20 (64.5) 63 (7.2)
 Post-secondary 603 (66.6) 10 (32.3) 593 (67.8)
 Missing 220 (24.3) 1 (3.2) 219 (25.0)
Daily iron supplementation, yes 35 (3.9) 3 (9.7) 32 (3.7)
 Missing 3 (0.3) 0 3 (0.3)
Daily cow’s milk intake (cups) 2.0 (0, 5) 3.0 (0, 5) 2.0 (0, 5)
Daily cow’s milk intake > 2 cups 278 (30.7) 17 (54.8) 261 (29.8)
 Missing 93 (10.3) 2 (6.5) 91 (10.4)
NutriSTEP® total score 12 (1, 39) 17 (6, 34) 12 (1, 39)
 Missing 208 (23.0) 1 (3.2) 207 (23.7)
BMI
 Underweight (z < −2) 23 (2.5) 2 (6.5) 21 (2.4)
 Healthy weight (− 2 ≥ z ≤ 1) 682 (75.3) 21 (67.7) 661 (75.5)
 At risk overweight (1 > z ≤ 2) 124 (13.7) 5 (16.1) 119 (13.6)
 Overweight (2 < z ≤ 3) 42 (4.6) 3 (9.7) 39 (4.5)
 Obese (z > 3) 4 (0.4) 0 4 (0.5)
 Missing 31 (3.4) 0 31 (3.5)
Breastfeeding duration, mo 11.0 (0, 35.9)
17 (1.9)
2.0 (0, 23.8)
0
11.0 (0, 35.9)
17 (1.9)
Meat/meat alternatives consumption
 More than twice daily 209 (23.1) 5 (16.1) 204 (23.3)
 Twice daily 442 (48.8) 14 (45.2) 428 (48.9)
 Once daily 186 (20.5) 7 (22.6) 179 (20.5)
 A few times weekly 62 (6.8) 2 (6.5) 60 (6.9)
 Not at all 6 (0.7) 2 (6.5) 4 (0.5)
 Missing 1 (0.1) 1 (3.2) 0
CRP (mg/L) 0.3 (0.1, 9.7) 0.5 (0.1, 4.8) 0.3 (0.1, 9.7)
Serum ferritin (μg/L) 25 (2, 202) 28 (4, 202) 25 (2, 159)
Iron deficiency, yes
(serum ferritin < 14 μg/L)
161 (17.8) 3 (9.7) 158 (18.1)
Hemoglobin (g/L) 121.0 (78, 147) 120.5 (99, 140) 121.0 (78, 147)
 Missing 43 (4.8%) 3 (9.7%) 40 (4.6%)
Iron deficiency anemia, yes
(Serum ferritin < 14 μg/L Hb ≤110 g/L) 21 (2.3) 1 (3.2) 20 (2.3)
 Missing 43 (4.8) 3 (9.7) 40 (4.6)
  1. zBMI indicates body mass index z score
  2. aData are presented as n (%) or median (range)
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