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Table 3 Association between baseline pain and insomnia symptoms and restricted social activity at follow-up

From: Musculoskeletal pain and co-morbid insomnia in adults; a population study of the prevalence and impact on restricted social participation

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV
Baseline Pain 1.8*
(1.2,2.9)
1.1
(0.7,1.8)
1.1
(0.6,1.8)
1.3
(0.7,2.4)
Delayed sleep onset 2.9**
(1.8,4.8)
2.4**
(1.4,4.1)
2.6**
(1.5,4.5)
7.6**
(2.3,25.4)
Difficulty maintaining sleep 1.3
(0.8,2.1)
1.1
(0.7,1.8)
1.0
(0.6,1.6)
1.0
(0.6,1.6)
Early waking 1.5
(0.8,2.6)
1.4
(0.8,2.5)
1.4
(0.7,2.5)
1.3
(0.7,2.5)
Non-restorative sleep 2.0**
(1.3,3.1)
1.0
(0.6,1.6)
0.9
(0.6,1.5)
0.9
(0.6,1.5)
Age 1.5**
(1.2,1.8)
1.2
(0.98,1.5)
1.2
(0.9,1.5)
1.2
(0.9,1.5)
Gender 1.2
(0.97,1.4)
1.1
(0.9,1.4)
1.2
(0.97,1.4)
1.2
(0.96,1.4)
Manual occupation 1.2
(0.98,1.4)
1.1
(0.9,1.3)
1.0
(0.8,1.2)
1.0
(0.8,1.2)
Possible/probable Depression - 1.8**
(1.5,2.1)
1.5**
(1.3,1.8)
1.5**
(1.2,1.8)
Possible/probable Anxiety - 1.3*
(1.0,1.6)
1.2
(0.9,1.4)
1.2
(0.9,1.5)
Poor physical function (Lowest tertilea) - 2.7**
(1.7,4.4)
1.9*
(1.1,3.2)
2.0**
(1.2,3.3)
Moderate physical function (mid tertilea) - 1.3
(0.8,2.2)
1.2
(0.7,2.1)
1.2
(0.7,2.0)
Baseline RSA - - 4.6**
(3.0,7.1)
4.6**
(3.0,7.1)
Pain x delayed sleep onset interaction - -   0.3*
(0.1,0.99)
Model fit: AUROC 0.730 0.805 0.829 0.830
Hosmer-Lemeshow test p = .308 (83.2%) p = .435
(85.4%)
p = .394
(86.5%)
p = .414
(86.6%)
  1. Multivariate model I: Pain, each insomnia symptom, and sociodemographic factors. Model II: Pain, each insomnia symptom, sociodemographic factors, anxiety, depression and physical health related quality of life. Model III: Pain, each insomnia symptom, sociodemographic factors, anxiety, depression, physical health related quality of life and baseline social participation. Model IV: Model 3 plus the inclusion of an interaction term between pain and delayed sleep onset. All values are Exp (beta) with 95% confidence intervals. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, − variable not included in the model
  2. aReferent group was those participants in the tertile with the highest physical function scores
  3. AUROC – Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve. Hosmer & Lemeshow test reported as p-value (insignificant p-value indicates good fit) and proportion of cases correctly classified