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Table 4 Diagnostic power of the individual cues in the 19 minor cases

From: Evaluating the scripts and thresholds of general practitioners for diagnosing heart failure in elderly people

  Total group Trainee Trainer
Average power, median (IQR) Average power, median (IQR) Cue used to exclude HF n (%) Average power, median (IQR) Cue used to exclude HF n (%)
Lung auscultation      
 Normal −0.5 (−1.0, −0.25) −0.50 (−1.0, −0.20) 98 (75.4) −0.75 (−1.0, −0.25) 54 (85.7)
 Basal crepitation 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 1.5 (1.5, 2.0) 1 (0.8) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 1 (1.6)
 Wheezing 0 (−1.0, 0.50) −0.50 (−1.0, 0.13) 72 (55.4) 0 (−0.50, 0.50)* 17 (27.0)
Dyspnoea      
 Absent −1.0 (−1.5, −0.50) −1.0 (−1.0, −0.50) 114 (87.7) −1.0 (−1.5, −0.50) 58 (92.1)
 Present 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 2 (1.5) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 0 (0)
NT-proBNP      
 Normal −1.3 (−2.3, −0.67) −1.3 (−2.3, 0.67) 113 (86.9) −1.3 (−2.7, −0.67) 53 (84.1)
 Increased 2.0 (1.3, 2.7) 2.0 (1.3, 2.7) 0 (0) 2.0 (1.3, 2.3) 0 (0)
Heart murmur      
 Absent 0 (−0.50, 0) 0 (−0.50, 0) 42 (32.3) 0 (−0.50, 0) 28 (44.4)
 Present 1.0 (0.50, 1.5) 1.0 (0.50, 1.5) 2 (1.5) 1.0 (0.50, 1.5) 2 (3.2)
Orthopnoea      
 Absent −0.67 (−1.0, −0.33) −0.67 (−1.0, −0.33) 101 (77.7) −0.67 (−1.0, −0.33) 50 (79.4)
 Present 2.0 (1.7, 2.7) 2.0 (1.7, 2.7) 0 (0) 2.0 (1.7, 2.7) 0 (0)
Jugular venous pressure      
 Normal −0.33 (−1.0, 0) −0.33 (−0.67, 0) 66 (50.8) −0.67 (−1.0, 0)* 42 (66.7)
 Increased 1.7 (1.3, 2.3) 1.7 (1.3, 2.1) 0 (0) 1.7 (1.0, 2.3) 0 (0)
Nocturnal paroxysmal dyspnoea      
 Absent −0.5 (−1.0, 0) −0.50 (−1.0, 0) 84 (64.6) −0.50 (−1.0, 0) 43 (68.3)
 Present 1.0 (1.0, 2.0) 1.0 (0.50, 1.6) 2 (1.5) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0)* 1 (1.6)
Apex beat      
 Normal 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 19 (14.6) 0 (−0.50, 0)* 19 (30.2)
 Displaced 1.0 (1.0, 1.5) 1.0 (1.0, 1.5) 1 (0.8) 1.0 (1.0, 1.5)* 0 (0)
Oedema      
 Absent −0.75 (−1.0, 0) −0.50 (−1.0, 0) 96 (73.8) −0.75 (−1.0, 0) 47 (74.6)
 Present 1.5 (1.3, 2.0) 1.8 (1.3, 2.0) 0 (0) 1.5 (1.3, 2.0) 0 (0)
History myocardial infarct      
 Absent −0.50 (−0.75, 0) −0.50 (−0.63, 0) 71 (54.6) 0 (−1.0, 0) 29 (46.0)
 Present 2.0 (1.0, 2.0) 2.0 (1.0, 2.0) 0 (0) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 0 (0)
Electrocardiography      
 Normal 0 (−1, 0) 0 (−1.0, 0) 61 (46.9) −0.50 (−1.0, 0) 34 (54.0)
 Abnormal 0.50 (0, 1.0) 0.50 (0, 1.0) 4 (3.1) 0.50 (0, 1.0) 5 (7.9)
Chest X-ray (cardiothoracic index)      
 Normal −0.50 (−1.0, 0) −0.50 (−1.0, 0) 78 (60.0) −0.50 (−1.0, 0) 39 (61.9)
 Abnormal 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 1 (0.8) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 0 (0)
Pulse rate      
 Regular 0 (−0.50, 0) 0 (0, 0) 30 (23.1) 0 (−0.50, 0) 21 (33.3)
 Irregular 1.0 (1.0, 1.8) 1.0 (1.0, 1.5) 6 (4.6) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0)* 0 (0)
Appetite      
 Normal 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 15 (11.5) 0 (0, 0) 11 (17.5)
 Decreased 0.50 (0, 1.0) 0.50 (0, 1.0) 10 (7.7) 1.0 (0, 1.0)* 3 (4.8)
  1. *Significant difference in mean power assigned to the cues in the minor cases between trainees and trainers (Mann–Whitney U test, P < 0.05)