Skip to main content

Table 2 Validators and utility of clinical syndromes, as well as established evidence regarding BDS

From: Bodily distress syndrome: A new diagnosis for functional disorders in primary care?

Validator Scientific method Study
Identify and describe the syndrome ‘Clinical intuition’ or cluster analyses Fink et al. (2007) [2] Budtz-Lilly et al. (2015) [43]
Demonstrate boundaries between related syndromes and from normality Statistical methods, e.g. latent class analysis Fink et al. (2007) [2] Budtz-Lilly et al. (2015) [43]
Establish a distinct course or outcome Follow-up studies Budtz-Lilly et al. (2015) [42] Rask et al. (2015) [44]
Establish a distinct treatment response Therapeutic trials Fjordback et al. (2013)a [45] Schröder et al. (2012)a [46]
Establish that the syndrome ‘breeds true’ Family studies No studies found
Identify biological correlates Demonstrate the association with abnormalities of anatomical, biochemical or molecular character No studies found
Additional validator   Study
The patients must be sampled from representative populations   Fink et al. (2007) [2] Budtz-Lilly et al. (2015) [42] Budtz-Lilly et al. (2015) [43] Rask et al. (2015) [44]
Results should be confirmed in cross-validation studies   Budtz-Lilly et al. (2015) [43]
Patients must be assessed by an appropriate method   Fink et al. (2007) [2]
Clinical utility   Study
Is it used?   No studies found
Is it acceptable to users?   Lam et al. (2013) [84]
Is it easy to use?   No studies found
Is it used correctly?   No studies found
Does it improve clinical outcome?   No studies found
Does it enhance communication?   
with patients   No studies foundb
across medical specialties   No studies found
Does it assist in conceptualising?   Lam et al. (2013) [84]
  1. aSpecialised setting
  2. bApplies explanatory models