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Table 1 Demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatments and functional status of primary care patients with a serious lower respiratory tract infection (N = 548; Total cohort)

From: Pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infections in adults: an observational case-control study in primary care in Belgium

  Categories Mean ± SD or N (%)
Demographics   
Age (year)   54.8 ± 18.1
Age group 18–49 years 208 (38.0)
50–64 years 165 (30.1)
≥65 years 175 (31.9)
Gender Male 254 (46.4)
Female 294 (53.6)
Smoking status Smoker 171 (31.2)
Former smoker 120 (21.9)
Non-smoker 257 (46.9)
Activity and revenue Without revenue 64 (11.7)
Replacement revenue 44 (8.0)
Self-employed 19 (3.5)
Manual worker 112 (20.4)
Employee 101 (18.4)
Manager 10 (1.8)
Retired 198 (36.1)
Exposition to young children   285 (52.0)
Living conditions At home 530 (96.7)
Nursing home 15 (2.7)
Institution 3 (0.6)
Medical history   
Influenza vaccination 18–49 years 18 (8.6)
50–64 years 45 (27.3)
≥65 years 93 (53.1)
Pneumococcal vaccination 18–49 years 6 (2.9)
50–64 years 10 (6.1)
≥65 years 48 (27.4)
Co-morbidities Asthma 64 (22.0)
Chronic bronchitis 61 (21.0)
Diabetes 45 (15.5)
Renal insufficiency 32 (11.0)
COPD 94 (32.3)
Cardiovascular illness 96 (33.0)
Immunological illness 15 (5.2)
Allergy to antibiotics   42 (7.7)
Clinical symptoms   
Body temperature taken by the physician (°C)   38.3 ± 0.9
Body temperature taken by the patient (°C)   38.9 ± 0.5
Breaths per minute   21.7 ± 7.3
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)   125.1 ± 17.1
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)   76.7 ± 9.2
Cough   537 (98.0)
Sputum   428 (78.1)
Shortness of breath   362 (66.1)
Wheezing   239 (43.6)
Coryza   34 (6.2)
Breath sounds   443 (80.8)
Chest pain   310 (56.6)
Muscle ache   338 (61.7)
Headache   303 (55.3)
Disturbed sleep   303 (55.3)
Feeling unwell   459 (83.8)
Shivers   258 (47.1)
Interference with normal activity   374 (68.2)
Confusion/disorientation   48 (8.8)
Diarrhoea   66 (12.0)
CRB-65 score 0 (best health status) 306 (55.8)
1 163 (29.7)
2 66 (12.0)
3 (worst health status) 13 (2.4)
Diagnostic tests   
X-ray radiography   50 (9.1)
X-ray signs No signs 15 (30.0)
Lobar consolidation 9 (18.0)
Infiltrate 26 (52.0)
Pleural effusion   2 (4.0)
Blood culture   3 (0.5)
Tentative diagnosis Acute bronchitis 292 (53.3)
Bronchopneumonia 99 (18.1)
Pneumonia 76 (13.9)
COPD exacerbation 81 (14.8)
Treatment   
Pharmacological treatment   540 (98.5)
  Antibiotics 490 (90.7)
Antipyretics 425 (78.7)
NSAIDs 24 (4.4)
Corticosteroids 91 (16.9)
Bronchodilators 135 (25.0)
Antitussives 259 (48.0)
Low weight heparin 6 (1.1)
N-acetylcysteine 102 (18.9)
Non-pharmacological treatment   35 (6.4)
  Oxygen 9 (25.7)
Physiotherapy 30 (85.7)
Sick leave   234 (42.7)
Supplementary home care   15 (2.7)
Hospitalisation   8 (1.5)
Functional status   
EQ-5D index   0.61 ± 0.29
EQ-5D visual analogue scale (mm)   51.7 ± 17.5
  1. SD = Standard Deviation; COPD = Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; °C = Celsius degree; mmHg = millimetre of mercury; CRB-65 = Confusion, Respiratory rate, Blood Pressure and Age ≥65 years [16, 17]; NSAID = Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug; EQ-5D index (http://www.euroqol.org/ and reference [18])