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Table 3 Cumulative incidence and risk ratio (RR) of multimorbidity for the five acute diseases with the highest cumulative incidence by sex and age groups* #

From: Impact of multimorbidity: acute morbidity, area of residency and use of health services across the life span in a region of south Europe

Female Male
Age groups ICPC 2 code Acute diseases MM CI Non-MM CI Risk ratio 95% confidence interval ICPC 2 code Acute diseases MM CI* Non-MM CI Risk ratio 95% confidence interval
    (%) (%)      (%) (%)   
19-24 R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 16.2 8.8 1.10 (1.04-1.16) R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 11.9 7.0 0.96 (0.89-1.03)
R76 Tonsillitis, acute 6.7 4.3 0.94 (0.86-1.02) R76 Tonsillitis, acute 5.5 3.4 0.92 (0.83-1.02)
U71 Cystitis/urinary infection, other 6.3 4.1 0.85 (0.78-0.93) D73 Gastroenteritis, presumed infection 4.8 2.8 0.93 (0.83-1.04)
D82 Teeth/gum disease 6.2 3.6 1.14 (1.04-1.25) D82 Teeth/gum disease 4.3 2.7 0.63 (0.44-0.89)
D73 Gastroenteritis, presumed infection 6.3 3.4 1.06 (0.97-1.16) S16 Bruise/contusion 3.2 2.4 0.75 (0.66-0.86)
25-44 R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 12.8 6.9 1.01 (0.98-1.03) R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 9.9 5.7 0.85 (0.82-0.87)
L03 Low back symptom/complaint 4.4 3.1 0.73 (0.71-0.76) D73 Gastroenteritis, presumed infection 3.8 2.3 0.79 (0.76-0.83)
U71 Cystitis/urinary infection other 4.4 2.6 0.86 (0.83-0.90) L03 Low back symptom/complaint 3.5 2.2 0.75 (0.71-0.78)
D73 Gastroenteritis presumed infection 4.3 2.5 0.90 (0.87-0.94) D82 Teeth/gum disease 3.5 2.2 0.82 (0.72-0.93)
R76 Tonsillitis, acute 3.6 2.5 1.08 (0.91-1.29) R76 Tonsillitis, acute 2.4 1.8 0.69 (0.65-0.73)
45-64 R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 9.7 4.5 0.92 (0.88-0.95) R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 6.7 3.4 0.79 (0.76-0.82)
L03 Low back symptom/complaint 3.9 2.1 0.78 (0.74-0.82) L03 Low back symptom/complaint 3.2 2.1 0.58 (0.55-0.62)
U71 Cystitis/urinary infection, other 4.0 1.7 0.86 (0.81-0.92) R78 Acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis 3.0 1.3 0.86 (0.80-0.92)
R78 Acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis 3.9 1.6 0.95 (0.89-1.01) D82 Teeth/gum disease 2.9 1.6 0.83 (0.70-0.98)
L20 Joint symptom/complaint NOS 3.3 1.5 0.97 (0.82-1.15) H81 Excessive ear wax 2.5 1.4 0.74 (0.69-0.78)
65-79 R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 8.4 3.2 0.92 (0.70-1.20) R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 7.6 3.3 0.93 (0.84-1.03)
U71 Cystitis/urinary infection other 5.1 1.4 1.09 (0.91-1.30) H81 Excessive ear wax 4.4 2.3 0.74 (0.65-0.83)
R78 Acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis 4.5 1.3 0.71 (0.36-1.39) R78 Acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis 4.2 1.5 0.99 (0.85-1.14)
H81 Excessive ear wax 3.3 1.2 0.88 (0.74-1.04) D82 Teeth/gum disease 2.9 1.2 1.31 (1.10-1.57)
L03 Low back symptom/complaint 3.0 1.1 0.76 (0.54-1.07) L03 Low back symptom/complaint 2.5 1.1 0.87 (0.73-1.03)
80+ R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 5.8 1.5 1.47 (1.16-1.86) H81 Excessive ear wax 6.5 2.7 0.98 (0.77-1.24)
U71 Cystitis/urinary infection, other 5.9 1.5 1.40 (1.10-1.78) R74 Upper respiratory infection, acute 6.2 2.0 1.29 (0.98-1.70)
R78 Acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis 5.3 2.0 0.99 (0.80-1.23) R78 Acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis 5.7 2.0 1.06 (0.80-1.40)
H81 Excessive ear wax 4.7 1.3 1.34 (1.04-1.73) S18 Laceration/cut 4.3 2 0.75 (0.57-0.99)
S18 Laceration/cut 3.9 1.6 0.78 (0.61-0.99) U71 Cystitis/urinary infection, other 3.0 1.5 0.73 (0.53-1.01)
  1. Abbreviations: MM multimorbidity, RR risk ratio, ICPC 2 International Classification of Primary Care, CI Cumulative incidence, NOS not otherwise specified.
  2. *Cumulative incicidence was calculated as the sum of the number of new acute events during the study period divided by the 2010 population (e.g. if a patient passed two bronchitis in one year. the total number of events accounted for was two).
  3. #The outcome is the number of acute diseases in each person for each acute disease considered. RR of multimorbidity versus non-multimorbidity was calculated by Poisson, negative binomial (if overdispersion is present) or zero inflated (when data showed excess of zero counts) equation as appropriate and adjusted for number of visits and area of residency. In bold P < 0.05.