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Table 3 Final version of the KNOA questionnaire for primary care practitioners

From: Development and validity of a questionnaire to test the knowledge of primary care personnel regarding nutrition in obese adolescents

Questions
1 – Most studies indicate that the prevalence of overweight or obesity in adolescents ranges from 10% to 15%.
2 – Changes in nutrition habits such as increase in carbohydrate and fat consumption are directly associated to the current prevalence of adolescent obesity.
3 – Obese adolescents have potential for becoming obese adults.
4 – The chance of obese adolescents developing type 2 diabetes is 2 to 3 times greater than that of non-obese adolescents.
5 – At least 10% of obese adolescents present with arterial hypertension.
6 – Obesity in adolescents is positively related to dyslipidemia.
7 – Body mass index (BMI) is considered a sufficient indicator of the nutritional status of adolescents.
8 – Preceding the pubertal growth spurt, adolescents may exhibit an overweight appearance that is not diagnosed as obesity.
9 – Adolescents with a weight-for-age percentile greater than 85% are diagnosed as obese.
10 – Adolescents undergoing treatment must be evaluated every 6 months.
11 – In the treatment of obese adolescents, weight gain interruption, with weight stabilization within a growth chart percentile which represents obesity can be assumed to be a satisfactory preliminary therapeutic result.
12 – Food guide pyramids should be shown to patients to explain nutrient variety, moderate consumption and proportion of food items.
13 – It is recommended that obese adolescents have 4 daily meals: breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner.
14 – Fruit can be replaced by fruit juice.
15 – The health benefits of fruits and vegetables are that of providing vitamins and mineral salts.
16 – Consuming one apple and one banana every day meets daily fruit consumption recommendations.
17 – Consuming fiber-rich fruits promotes a feeling of satiety, contributing to weight control.
18 – Fats must be excluded from the diets of obese adolescents.
19 – Obese adolescents should consume “diet food” to limit dietary fat.
20 – Obese adolescents should avoid drinking milk due to its high fat content.
21 – Obese adolescents may include low-fat sandwiches (containing turkey breast, ricotta cheese and green leaves) in their diet.
22 – In contrast to saturated fats, unsaturated fats do not cause health problems unless they are consumed excessively.
23 – The amount of sweets or sugary food items recommended for obese adolescents is limited to a maximum of one daily portion.
24 – The use of artificial sweeteners as a substitute for sugar is indicated in the treatment of obese adolescents.
25 – Carbohydrates with a low-glycemic index are known to play a positive role in dietotherapy of obesity.
26 – Fruit-based rather than creamy desserts should be adopted when treating obese adolescents.