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Table 1 Studies comparing CBT-I to pharmacological therapies: methods

From: Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review

Study Design Patients Intervention and duration Comparison Sleep measurements reported Comment
Location Quality Longest follow-up     
CBT-I vs. zopiclone
Sievertsen 2006 [29] RCT 46 patients, age 55 and up Individual CBT-I,6 weekly sessions Zopiclone, 7.5 mg nightly Sleep diaries, polysomnography Study also included placebo group. Zopiclone patients had option to continue it after 6 week period.
Norway 5 12 months     
       Daytime outcomes reported in [35]
CBT-I vs. zolpidem
Jacobs 2004 [30] RCT 63 patients, age 25-64 Individual CBT-I, 5 sessions, 6 weeks; plus 1 telephone session Zolpidem, see comment Sleep diaries, sleep monitor Dose 10 mg→5 mg→5 mg q2d over 6 week period.
USA 5 12 months     
CBT-I vs. temazepam
Wu 2006 [32] RCT 77 patients Individual CBT-I 2 per week, 8 weeks Temazepam, see comment Sleep diaries, polysomnography Dose 7.5 mg→30 mg→15 mg over 8 week period
China 3 8 months     
       Study also included placebo and combined therapy groups
Morin 1999 [31] RCT 78 patients, age 55 and up Group CBT-I 8 weekly sessions Temazepam, see comment Sleep diaries, polysomnography Dose 7.5 mg→30 mg as needed over 8 week period
       Study also included placebo and combined therapy groups.
Canada 6 24 months     
       Adverse effects reported in [36]
Patient attitudes reported in [37]
CBT-I vs. triazolam
McCluskey 1991 [33] RCT 30 patients Group CBT-I 2 per week, 3 weeks Triazolam, 0.5 mg, then tapered to 0 Sleep diaries Triazolam group also had weeklygroup meetings but no CBT-I
USA 4 9 weeks