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Table 3 Subjective variables.

From: Predictors of stable return-to-work in non-acute, non-specific spinal pain: low total prior sick-listing, high self prediction and young age. A two-year prospective cohort study

    Prediction for Stable return-to-work
    6 months 12 months 18 months 24 months
  Class limits n OR p 95%CI OR p 95%CI OR p 95%CI OR p 95%CI
Pain just now (VAS 1-100)[25] 70-100 41 Ref.            
  48-69 43 2.4 .09 .9-6.9 - - - - - - - - -
  0-47 40 1.5 NS .5-4.3 - - - - - - - - -
Pain at worst last week[25] 81-100 42 Ref.            
  68-80 43 2.5 .09 .9-6.8 - - - - - - - - -
  0-67 39 1.4 NS .5-4.2 - - - - - - - - -
Intermittent pain[15]1 - 39 - - - - - - 2.3 .04 1.0-5.4 - - -
Non-radiating pain[17]2 - 32 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Local pain[25]3 - 24 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Back-pain domination[32]4 - 86 9.0 .004 2.0-40.2 2.5 .05 1.0-6.4 - - - - - -
Time since start of NSP (years)[27] > 5 53        Ref.    Ref.   
  1.5-5 34 - - - - - - 2.9 .03 1.1-7.4 2.2 .09 .9-5.5
  < 1.5 37 - - - - - - 1.5 NS .6-3.6 1.1 NS .5-2.7
No surgery f. b/n pain[50]5 - 116 - - - - - - - - - - - -
No anxiety/depression[15]6 - 26 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tired seldom[67]7 - 59 3.1 .01 1.3-7.6 - - - 1.9 .09 .9-4.2 - - -
No comorbidity[68]8 - 79 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Non-severe functional impairment (ODI)9 - 78 2.1 .09 .9-4.9 2.9 .01 1.3-6.8 2.5 .02 1.2-5.4 - - -
Health-related 0-.359 42 Ref.    Ref.    Ref.      
quality of life .360-.629 46 2.8 .06 1.0-8.3 2.1 NS .8-5.4 2.1 NS .8-5.1 - - -
(EQ-5D)[21] .630-1.0 36 2.9 .06 .9-8.9 2.6 .06 1.0-7.1 3.0 .03 1.1-7.9 - - -
State of health (EQ-VAS)[21] 0-35 44 Ref.    .    Ref.      
  36-49 33 2.2 NS .7-7.0 - - - 2.0 NS .7-5.4 - - -
  50-100 47 3.6 .02 1.3-10.3 - - - 3.1 .01 1.3-7.7 - - -
Non-catastrophizing[70]10 - 67 2.2 .08 .9-5.1 - - - 3.6 .002 1.6-8.0 2.3 .04 1.1-4.9
High self prediction[14] - 95 4.2 .03 1.2-15.2 6.4 .002 1.9-21.0 4.4 .005 1.5-12.4 3.8 .008 1.4-10.2
  1. 1 Reference: Continual pain = pain whenever awake (n = 95).
  2. 2 Reference: Radiating pain = radiation of pain/numbness to the leg beneath the knee and/or the arm beneath the elbow (n = 92).
  3. 3 Pain in the back or the neck. Reference: Widespread pain = pain in both the back and the neck (n = 100).
  4. 4 Reference: Neck-pain domination (n = 38).
  5. 5 Reference: Surgery for back and/or neck pain at least once (for example, for a slipped disc) (n = 8).
  6. 6 Item 5 in EQ-5 D[20], alternative 1 = "I am not anxious or depressed". Reference: alternative 2: "... moderately..." or 3: "... extremely...".
  7. 7 One item from SF 36[67]: "Tired during the last four weeks: 'some of the time', 'a little bit of the time' or 'none of the time'". Reference: Tired often = 'all of the time', 'most of the time' or 'a good bit of the time'.
  8. 8 Reference: Comorbidity = any other, chronic disease except NSP or obesity (n = 45).
  9. 9 ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) scores general functional disability associated with back pain, 0-100%: 0-20% = minimal, 21-40% = moderate, 41-60% = severe, 61-100% = extremely severe to crippling disability[38]. Reference: Non-severe functional impairment = ODI < 41%[69]
  10. 10 Six catastrophizing thoughts, never-always, 0-6, are summarized, 0-36. Non-catastrophizing ≥ 15. Reference: Catastrophizing > 15 (n = 39).
  11. Further explanations in Table 1.