Skip to main content

Table 2 Socioeconomic variables.

From: Predictors of stable return-to-work in non-acute, non-specific spinal pain: low total prior sick-listing, high self prediction and young age. A two-year prospective cohort study

   Prediction for Stable return-to-work
   6 months 12 months 18 months 24 months
  n OR p 95%CI OR p 95%CI OR p 95%CI OR p 95%CI
Man[24, 27, 29, 34] 56 - - - 2.1 .06 1.0-4.5 - - - - - -
Young age (≤44 years)[26, 30] 67 - - - 3.0 .005 1.4-6.7 2.9 .006 1.3-6.1 2.6 .01 1.2-5.4
Non-immigrant[12]1 90 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Co-habiting[53]2 85 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Living without children[54] 55 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Non-bad economy[17]3 68 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Non-low education[55]4 80 2.2 .07 .9- 5.6 2.9 .02 1.2-7.1 3.0 .01 1.3-6.9 3.5 .004 1.5-8.0
White-collar job[56]5 125 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Physical work conditions6:              
No vibrations[58] 84 3.3 .03 1.2-9.4 2.9 .04 1.0-7.0 - - - - - -
Light physical workload[34] 21 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Varied work moments[34] 46 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Non-sedentary work[57] 88 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Comfortable w. postures[34] 27 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Psychosocial work conditions7:              
No job strain[60] 90 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Good social support[61] 94 4.5 .02 1.2-16.2 - - - - - - 2.7 .04 1.1-6.8
Non-unemployed[62] 95 .5 .10 .2-1.2 - - - - - - - - -
No work trauma litigation 8 978 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Non-smoking[26] 75 - - - - - - - - - - - -
No indication of alcohol overconsumption[42]9 107 - - - - - - - - - - - -
High physical activity[65]10 86 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Non-obese (BMI < 30[66])[37] 94 .4 .05 .2-1.0 - - - - - - - - -
Subacute NSP 11 38 3.4 .006 1.4-8.0 2.8 .02 1.2-6.3 5.4 < .001 2.2-13.0 3.1 .008 1.4-7.2
Low total prior sick-listing 12 57 3.1 .005 1.4-6.9 3.1 .005 1.4-6.9 7.7 < .001 3.3-18.1 4.9 <.001 2.2-11.0
  1. 1 = Born in Sweden. Reference: Immigrant (n = 34).
  2. 2 Includes living single with children. Reference: Single = living alone, without children (n = 39).
  3. 3 = "Neither bad nor good", "Good" or "Very good". Reference: Bad economy = "Very bad" or "Bad" (n = 56).
  4. 4 Reference: Low education = at most junior high school (n = 44).
  5. 5 Out of the 94 non-unemployed patients. Reference: Blue-collar job (n = 82).
  6. 6 "State the conditions that you regularly (not occasionally) are exposed to: ...Vibrations (from tools, vehicles etc.) ...Heavy lifting or greater muscle efforts ...Monotonous work moments ...Sedentary work ...Difficult work postures (bent, twisted, locked etc.)": answer "No". References: "Yes" [57].
  7. 7 Psychological demands (5 items), decision latitude (6 items) and social support (6 items), total scores 5-20, 6-24 and 6-24 respectively; No job strain = non-scoring demands above the midpoint (> 13) and decision latitude below the midpoint (> 15); reference: Job strain = demands above + decision latitude below the midpoint (n = 34). Good social support = above the midpoint (> 15); reference: Bad social support = below the midpoint (n = 30) [59].
  8. 8 Out of 115 patients (9 patients scored "I don't know"). "Have you reported your pain as a work trauma?": answer "No". Reference: "Yes" (n = 18) [63].
  9. 9 To drink alcohol corresponding to at least 1/2 bottle (= 37.5 centilitres) of strong spirits on one and the same occasion, less than 2-3 times monthly. Reference: Indication of alcohol overconsumption = at least 2-3 times monthly (n = 17) [64](+ personal communication Anders Romelsjö 27 Aug. 2007).
  10. 10 Physical activity, including walking > 30 minutes, twice/week or more. Reference: Low physical activity: once/week or less (n = 38).
  11. 11 = a current, full-time sick-listing at baseline for NSP 42-84 days. Reference: Chronic NSP = a corresponding sick-listing of 85-730 days (n = 84) [31].
  12. 12 = a prior 2-year sick-listing for all diagnoses of at most 183 net days. Reference: High total prior sick-listing ≥ 184 net days [12].
  13. Further explanations in Table 1.