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Epidemiology and research methodology in primary care

This section covers, though is not limited to, all aspects of epidemiological research and research methodology within the context of primary care.

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  1. Serious lower respiratory tract infections (SLRTIs), especially Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP)-related pneumonia cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Chest imaging, sputum and blood culture are not routinel...

    Authors: Johan Flamaing, Wilfried De Backer, Yves Van Laethem, Stéphane Heijmans and Annick Mignon

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:66

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The prevalence of depression in the general population is 5 to 10% but can exceed 50% in the most socially vulnerable populations. The perceptions of this disease are widely described in the literature, but no...

    Authors: Claire Rondet, Isabelle Parizot, Jean Sebastien Cadwallader, Jacques Lebas and Pierre Chauvin

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:57

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of asthma therapy. The ICS-to-total-asthma-medication ratios, calculated from claims data, indicate potentially risky disease management in asthma. Our aim was...

    Authors: Laurent Laforest, Idlir Licaj, Gilles Devouassoux, Irene Eriksson, Pascal Caillet, Gérard Chatte, Manon Belhassen and Eric Van Ganse

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:49

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Family Practice 2016 17:5

  4. The Lapinlahti 2005–2010 study was carried out to explore cardiovascular disease risk factors and changes in lifestyle in Lapinlahti residents in eastern Finland. Our aim was to analyse factors influencing the...

    Authors: Jorma Savolainen, Hannu Kautiainen, Leo Niskanen and Pekka Mäntyselkä

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:29

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Performance reporting in primary health care in Canada is challenging because of the dearth of concise and synthesized information. The paucity of information occurs, in part, because the majority of primary h...

    Authors: Sabrina T Wong, Leena W Chau, William Hogg, Gary F Teare, Baukje Miedema, Mylaine Breton, Kris Aubrey-Bassler, Alan Katz, Fred Burge, Antoine Boivin, Tim Cooke, Danièle Francoeur and Walter P Wodchis

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:20

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Previous research has shown variations in quality of care and patient outcomes under different primary care models. The objective of this study was to use previously validated, evidence-based performance indic...

    Authors: Teresa To, Jun Guan, Jingqin Zhu, M Diane Lougheed, Alan Kaplan, Itamar Tamari, Matthew B Stanbrook, Jacqueline Simatovic, Laura Feldman and Andrea S Gershon

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:19

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Asthma is often poorly controlled and guidelines are often inadequately followed in medical practice. In particular, the prescription of non-asthma-specific drugs can affect the quality of care. The goal of th...

    Authors: David Darmon, Laurent Laforest, Eric Van Ganse, Ferdinando Petrazzuoli, Chris van Weel and Laurent Letrilliart

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:14

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) are increasingly used in the provision of primary care and have been compiled into databases which can be utilized for surveillance, research and informing practice. The prima...

    Authors: Nathan Coleman, Gayle Halas, William Peeler, Natalie Casaclang, Tyler Williamson and Alan Katz

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:11

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, relapsing gastrointestinal disorder, that affects approximately 10% of the general population and the majority are diagnosed in primary care. IBS has been reported ...

    Authors: Ewa Grodzinsky, Susanna Walter, Lisa Viktorsson, Ann-Kristin Carlsson, Michael P Jones and Åshild Faresjö

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Prediabetes is a high-risk state for diabetes development, but little is known about the factors associated with this state. The aim of the study was to identify modifiable risk factors associated with the pre...

    Authors: Alicia Díaz-Redondo, Carolina Giráldez-García, Lourdes Carrillo, Rosario Serrano, Francisco Javier García-Soidán, Sara Artola, Josep Franch, Javier Díez, Patxi Ezkurra, José Manuel Millaruelo, Mateu Seguí, Javier Sangrós, Juan Martínez-Candela, Pedro Muñoz, Albert Goday and Enrique Regidor

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:5

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Physicians are frequently confronted with complex health situations of patients, but knowledge of intensive forms of multimorbidity and their development during life is lacking.

    Authors: Rein Vos, Marjan van den Akker, Jos Boesten, Caroline Robertson and Job Metsemakers

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2015 16:2

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Nutrition screening in older adults is not routinely performed in Australian primary care settings. Low awareness of the extent of malnutrition in this patient group, lack of training and time constraints are ...

    Authors: Aliza Haslinda Hamirudin, Karen Charlton, Karen Walton, Andrew Bonney, Jan Potter, Marianna Milosavljevic, Adam Hodgkins, George Albert, Abhijeet Ghosh and Andrew Dalley

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:186

    Content type: Research article

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  13. General practice based registration networks (GPRNs) provide information on population health derived from electronic health records (EHR). Morbidity estimates from different GPRNs reveal considerable, unexpla...

    Authors: C van den Dungen, N Hoeymans, M van den Akker, MCJ Biermans, K van Boven, JHK Joosten, RA Verheij, MWM de Waal, FG Schellevis and JAM van Oers

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:176

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Patient safety in primary care is a developing field with an embryonic but evolving evidence base. This narrative review aims to identify tools that can be used by family practitioners as part of a patient saf...

    Authors: Rachel Spencer and Stephen M Campbell

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:166

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Most evidence on chronic diseases has been collected for single diseases whereas in reality, patients often suffer from more than one condition. There is a growing need for evidence-based answers to multimorbi...

    Authors: Pauline Boeckxstaens, Wim Peersman, Gwendolyn Goubin, Souhila Ghali, Jan De Maeseneer, Guy Brusselle and An De Sutter

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:159

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The importance of proactive chronic care has become increasingly evident. Yet, it is unknown whether the use of general practice (GP) during daytime may affect the use of Out-of-Hours (OOH) Primary Care Servic...

    Authors: Lone Flarup, Grete Moth, Morten Bondo Christensen, Mogens Vestergaard, Frede Olesen and Peter Vedsted

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:156

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Māori men in New Zealand have higher mortality from prostate cancer, despite having lower incidence rates. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of screening for prostate cancer in primary care a...

    Authors: Zuzana Obertová, Nina Scott, Charis Brown, Fraser Hodgson, Alistair Stewart, Michael Holmes and Ross Lawrenson

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:145

    Content type: Research article

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  18. As Japan’s population ages, more frail elderly people are cared for by members of their family. The dynamics within such families are difficult to study, in part because they are difficult to quantify. We deve...

    Authors: Tesshu Kusaba, Kotaro Sato, Yoshinori Matsui, Satoshi Matsuda, Takashi Ando, Ken Sakushima, Takafumi Wakita, Shingo Fukuma and Shunichi Fukuhara

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:134

    Content type: Research article

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  19. We explored experiences of depression diagnosis and treatment amongst multimorbid patients referred to a metropolitan multidisciplinary outpatient clinic to identify commonalities across this patient group.

    Authors: Melinda N Stanners, Christopher A Barton, Sepehr Shakib and Helen R Winefield

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:124

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Survival rates following a diagnosis of cancer vary between countries. The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP), a collaboration between six countries with primary care led health services, was...

    Authors: Peter W Rose, Willie Hamilton, Kate Aldersey, Andriana Barisic, Martin Dawes, Catherine Foot, Eva Grunfeld, Nigel Hart, Richard D Neal, Marie Pirotta, Jeffrey Sisler, Hans Thulesius, Peter Vedsted, Jane Young and Greg Rubin

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:122

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Organised follow-up is a common feature of several strategies at the primary health care level to promote health behaviour change, e.g. to increase physical activity. In Norway, municipal ‘healthy living’ cent...

    Authors: Eva Denison, Gunn E Vist, Vigdis Underland and Rigmor C Berg

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:120

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Serious mental illness (SMI) is associated with elevated mortality compared to the general population; the majority of this excess is attributable to co-occurring common physical health conditions. There may b...

    Authors: Charlotte Woodhead, Mark Ashworth, Peter Schofield and Max Henderson

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:117

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) has a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Considerable resources are consumed through health care consultations and prescribed treatment, despite evidence for litt...

    Authors: Kenny Kung, Carmen Ka Man Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong, Augustine Lam, Christy Ka Yan Chan, Sian Griffiths and Chris Butler

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:95

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been introduced in studies to assess healthcare performance. The development of PROMs for primary care poses specific challenges, including a preference for gener...

    Authors: Jan-Willem Weenink, Jozé Braspenning and Michel Wensing

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:88

    Content type: Research article

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  25. It is not well established how psychosocial factors like social support and depression affect health-related quality of life in multimorbid and elderly patients. We investigated whether depressive mood mediate...

    Authors: Felix S Wicke, Corina Güthlin, Karola Mergenthal, Jochen Gensichen, Christin Löffler, Horst Bickel, Wolfgang Maier, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Siegfried Weyerer, Birgitt Wiese, Hans-Helmut König, Gerhard Schön, Heike Hansen, Hendrik van den Bussche, Martin Scherer and Anne Dahlhaus

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:62

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Health care policy-makers look for prescribing indicators at the population level to evaluate the performance of prescribers, improve quality and control drug costs. The aim of this research was to; (i) estima...

    Authors: Caitriona Cahir, Tom Fahey, Conor Teljeur and Kathleen Bennett

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:59

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Polypharmacy is often considered suggestive of suboptimal prescribing, and is associated with adverse outcomes. It is particularly common in the context of cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether pre...

    Authors: Sarah C Appleton, Gary A Abel and Rupert A Payne

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:58

    Content type: Research article

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  28. This study aimed to examine the prevalence, risk factors, detection rates and management of primary care depression in Hong Kong.

    Authors: Weng Yee Chin, Kit TY Chan, Cindy LK Lam, Samuel YS Wong, Daniel YT Fong, Yvonne YC Lo, Tai Pong Lam and Billy CF Chiu

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:30

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Technology-based aids for lifestyle change are becoming more prevalent for chronic conditions. Important “digital divides” remain, as well as concerns about privacy, data security, and lack of motivation. Rese...

    Authors: Richelle J Koopman, Gregory F Petroski, Shannon M Canfield, Julie A Stuppy and David R Mehr

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:18

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Although lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) seem to be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men, it is unclear whether this relationship is unbiased. In order to investigate this relationship, we used l...

    Authors: Inge I Bouwman, Boudewijn J Kollen, Klaas van der Meer, Rien JM Nijman and Wouter K van der Heide

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:9

    Content type: Research article

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  31. A territory-wide diabetes management program (Risk Assessment Management Program – RAMP) was recently established, providing comprehensive management for all diabetics, helping to delineate current level of co...

    Authors: Kenny Kung, Kai Ming Chow, Eric Ming-Tung Hui, Maria Leung, Shuk Yun Leung, Cheuk Chun Szeto, Augustine Lam and Philip Kam-Tao Li

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:8

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Hgb A1c levels may be higher in persons without diabetes of lower socio-economic status (SES) but evidence about this association is limited; there is therefore uncertainty about the inclusion of SES in clinic...

    Authors: Babak Aliarzadeh, Michelle Greiver, Rahim Moineddin, Christopher Meaney, David White, Ambreen Moazzam, Kieran M Moore and Paul Belanger

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2014 15:7

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Studies determining the development of a wide variety of different comorbid disorders in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients are scarce, however, this knowledge could be helpful in optimising preventive care ...

    Authors: Jennie Ursum, Mark MJ Nielen, Jos WR Twisk, Mike JL Peters, François G Schellevis, Michael T Nurmohamed and Joke C Korevaar

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:199

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Screening for depressive disorders in the general adult population is recommended, however, it is unclear which instruments combine user friendliness and diagnostic utility. We evaluated the test performance o...

    Authors: Eva Blozik, Martin Scherer, Maria E Lacruz and Karl-Heinz Ladwig

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:198

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Estimates of the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) vary widely, and a large proportion of patients report having consulted their general practitioner (GP). In patients with new onset gastrointestina...

    Authors: Elaine F Harkness, Laura Grant, Sarah J O’Brien, Carolyn A Chew-Graham and David G Thompson

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:183

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Low disease prevalence and lack of uniform reference standards in primary care induce methodological challenges for investigating the diagnostic accuracy of a test. We present a study design that copes with th...

    Authors: Gea A Holtman, Leeuwen Yvonne Lisman-van, Boudewijn J Kollen, Johanna C Escher, Angelika Kindermann, Rheenen Patrick F van and Marjolein Y Berger

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:179

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. The General Practice Assessment Questionnaire (GPAQ) has been widely used to assess patient experience in general practice in the UK since 2004. In 2013, new regulations were introduced by the General Medical ...

    Authors: Martin Roland, Martin Roberts, Valerie Rhenius and John Campbell

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:160

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Data on the prevalence of depression and on how a depressive episode prompts the sufferer to seek primary care are not scarce, but the available evidence on the prevalence of depression among immigrants and po...

    Authors: Claire Rondet, Philippe Cornet, Bacha Kaoutar, Jacques Lebas and Pierre Chauvin

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:151

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are known to be at increased risk of vascular disease. It is not known whether screening for vascular risk factors occurs in primary care. The aim of this study was to d...

    Authors: Helen L Monk, Sara Muller, Christian D Mallen and Samantha L Hider

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:150

    Content type: Research article

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  40. A robust research base is required in General Practice. The research output for General Practice is much less than those of other clinical disciplines. A major impediment to more research in this sector is dif...

    Authors: Richard L Reed, Christopher A Barton, Linda M Isherwood, Jodie M Oliver Baxter and Leigh Roeger

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:125

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Multimorbidity is defined as suffering from coexistent chronic conditions. Multimorbid patients demand highly complex patient-centered care which often includes polypharmacy, taking an average of six different...

    Authors: Juliane Köberlein, Mandy Gottschall, Kathrin Czarnecki, Alexander Thomas, Antje Bergmann and Karen Voigt

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:119

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. Chronic disease risk on a population level can be quantified through health surveys, either continuous or periodic. To date, information gathered from primary care interactions, using sentinel sites, has not b...

    Authors: Abhijeet Ghosh, Karen E Charlton, Lisa Girdo, Marijka J Batterham and Keith McDonald

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:109

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Few studies have investigated the effect of small unconditional non-monetary incentives on survey response rates amongst GPs or medical practitioners. This study assessed the effectiveness of offering a small ...

    Authors: Sabrina Winona Pit, Vibeke Hansen and Dan Ewald

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:108

    Content type: Research article

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  44. GPs detect at best 50c of mental health problems in young people. Barriers to detecting mental health problems include lack of screening tools, limited appointment times and young people’s reluctance to report...

    Authors: Sophie C Reid, Sylvia D Kauer, Stephen J C Hearps, Alexander H D Crooke, Angela S Khor, Lena A Sanci and George C Patton

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:84

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Large population-based databases based on electronic medical records (EMRs) of patients in primary care are a useful data source to investigate morbidity and health care utilization. Diagnoses recorded in EMRs...

    Authors: Markus MJ Nielen, Jennie Ursum, François G Schellevis and Joke C Korevaar

    Citation: BMC Family Practice 2013 14:79

    Content type: Research article

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