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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies (n = 19, ordered by study time)

From: The impact of training healthcare professionals’ communication skills on the clinical care of diabetes and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Condition Health professionals Patients Comparison Outcome Longest duration of follow-up Country Context Methods
Kinmonth 1998 Type 2 diabetes n = 107 (43 GPs and 64 nurses) Age: NA n = 360 Mean age: 57.7 Sex: 59.2% male Int: Patient centred care skills training Con: No training HbA1C, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, communication performance, patient satisfaction, patient understanding, quality of life (ADDQoL), wellbing 12 months UK Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 41)
Brug 2007 Diabetes n = 37 (dietitians) Age: 24 to 45 n = 209 Mean age: NA Sex: NA Int: Motivational interviewing training Con: No training HbA1C, BMI, Self-care management 6 months Netherlands Home-care organizations Individual RCT
Rubak 2009 Type 2 diabetes n = 65 (GPs) Age: NA n = 265 Mean age: NA Sex: NA Int: Motivational interviewing training Con: No training Patient-doctor relationship (Health Care Climates Questionnaire), self-care management (Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities), patient understanding (Diabetes Illness Representation Questionnaire) 12 months Denmark Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 48)
Sequist 2010 Diabetes n = 124 (91 GPs and 33 NPs) Age: NA n = 2699 Mean age: 62.4 Sex: 48.7% male Int: Cultural competency training
Con: No training
HbA1C, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, Communication performance 12 months USA Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 31)
Heinrich 2010 Type 2 diabetes n = 33 (nurses) Age: NA n = 584 Mean age: 59 Sex: 45.1% male Int: Motivational interviewing training Con: No training HbA1C, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, patient-doctor relationship (Health Care Climates Questionnaire), self-care management (Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities), quality of life (DSQoL) 24 months Netherlands Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 33)
Rubak 2011 Type 2 diabetes n = 140 (GPs) Age: NA n = 628 Mean age: 61 Sex: 58% male Int: Motivational interviewing training Con: No training HbA1C, blood pressure, lipids, BMI 12 months Denmark Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 80)
Robling 2012 Type 1 diabetes n = 79 (Health practitioners) Age: NA n = 693 Mean age: 4 to 15 Sex: 49% male Int: Talking Diabetes consulting skills Con: No training HbA1C, BMI, quality of life, self-care management 12 months UK Secondary and tertiary care Cluster RCT (n = 26)
Farmer 2012 Type 2 diabetes n:NA Age: NA n = 211 Mean age: 63.2 Sex: 65.4% male Int: Theory of planned behaviour training
Con: No training
HbA1C Adherence (Medication Adherence Report Scale), health status (12-item Short Form Medical Outcomes), satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire) 3 months UK Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 13)
Welschen 2012 Type 2 diabetes n:NA Age: NA n = 262 Mean age: 58.6 Sex: 43.1% male Int: Six-step CVD risk communication training
Con: No training
Patient understanding, wellbeing (Short Form Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory), risk perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire), satisfaction (COMRADE scale) 3 months Netherlands A managed care system coordinates patients and specialists Individual RCT
Jansink 2013 Type 2 diabetes n = 53 (nurses) Age: 42.7 n = 521 Mean age: 64.0 Sex: 54.9% male Int: Motivational interviewing training Con: No training HbA1C, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, quality of life (Euroqol) 14 months Netherlands Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 58)
Tinsel 2013 Hypertension n:NA Age: NA n = 1120 Mean age: 64.4 Sex: 45.7% male Int: Shared decision making
Con: No training
Blood pressure, patient understanding, adherence (Medication Adherence Report Scale) 20 months Germany Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 37)
Juul 2014 Type 1 and 2 diabetes n = 34 (nurses) Age: NA n = 4034 Mean age: 60.5 Sex: 56.5% male Int: Communication skills training Con: No training HbA1C, lipids, BMI, health status (12-item Short Form Medical Outcomes), patient-doctor relationship (Health Care Climates Questionnaire), patient understanding (Problem Areas in Diabetes scale and Perceived Competence for Diabetes Scale) 18 months Denmark Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 40)
Ma 2014 Hypertension n = 12 (nurses) Age: NA n = 120 Mean age: 58.8 Sex: 49.2% male Int: Motivational interviewing training Con: No training Blood pressure, lipids Adherence (Treatment Adherence Questionnaire of Patients with Hypertension), health status (36-item short form) 6 months China Primary care Individual RCT
Manze 2015 Hypertension n = 58 (doctors) Age: NA n = 379 Mean age: 60.6 Sex: 29.6% male Int: Patient-centered counseling and cultural competency training
Con: No training
Blood pressure, communication performance, adherence (Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale) 18 months USA Primary care Individual RCT
Kressin 2016 Hypertension n:NA Age: NA n = 8866 Mean age: 66.2 Sex: 98.8% male Int: Patient-centered counseling
Con: No training
Blood pressure, communication performance, adherence 14 months USA Primary care Individual RCT
Okada 2017 Hypertension n:NA (pharmacists) Age: NA n = 125 Mean age: 64 Sex: 40% male Int: Motivational interviewing training Con: No training Blood pressure Adherence (Medication Adherence Report Scale), health status (WHO-Five wellbeing index and EQ-5D) 4 months Japan Pharmacy Cluster RCT (n = 73)
Akturan 2017 Type 2 diabetes n = 8 (doctors) Age: NA n = 112 Mean age: 56.9 Sex: 34.8% male Int: BATHE (Background, Affect, Troubling, Handling, and Empathy) training
Con: No training
Diabetes empowerment score 6 months Turkey Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 8)
Belin 2017 Hypertension n = 35 (health providers) Age: NA n = 240 Mean age: 37 Sex: 22.7% male Int: Communication skills training
Con: No training
Blood pressure, communication performance (Health Literacy Assessment Questions), adherence, patients’ self-efficacy NA Iran Primary care Individual RCT
Ismail 2018 Type 2 diabetes n:NA (nurses) Age: NA n = 334 Mean age: 58.9 Sex: 48.8% male Int: Diabetes-6 (six psychological skill) training
Con: No training
HbA1C, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, health status (PHQ-9 and Diabetes Distress Scale) 18 months UK Primary care Cluster RCT (n = 24)
  1. NA: not available; Int: intervention; Con: control