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Table 1 Overview of learning health systems included in the review

From: Learning health systems in primary care: a systematic scoping review

Name Location Description of Organization Stage Purpose
Integrated health system
 Baylor Scott & White Health [16] Texas, U.S Consists of 48 hospitals, 185 outpatient facilities, 26 surgery centers, 164 primary care clinics, 503 specialty clinics, and 30 pharmacies Planning Clinical decision making / quality improvement
 Denver Health [17] Colorado, U.S Consists of a hospital, 17 school health clinics, 9 primary care centers, and a trauma center Planning Clinical decision making / quality improvement
 Geisinger Health System [18,19,20,21,22] Central Pennsylvania & Southern New Jersey, U.S Consists of 8 hospitals, local primary care centers, specialists, and trauma centers Active Clinical decision making / quality improvement
 Intermountain Healthcare [15, 23,24,25] Utah & Idaho, U.S Consists of 22 hospitals, over 179 clinics, physician offices, and home-based care centers Active Clinical decision making / quality improvement
 Johns Hopkins [26] Maryland, U.S Consists of 240 primary care providers Active Clinical decision making / quality improvement
 Kaiser Permanente Colorado [27, 28] Colorado, U.S Consists of 1200 physicians across 31 centers Active Research / clinical decision making
 Kaiser Permanente Northern California [29,30,31] Northern California, U.S Consists of 8000 physicians across 237 centers Active Research / clinical decision making
 Kaiser Permanente Southern California [32,33,34,35] Southern California, U.S Consists of 6000 physicians across 209 centers Active Research / clinical decision making / quality improvement
 Kaiser Permanente Washington formerly known as Group Health Cooperative [36, 37] Washington, U.S Consists of 31 medical centers Active Clinical decision making / quality improvement
 NYU Langone Health [38, 39] New York, U.S Consists of 6 inpatient locations, and 8 primary care and speciality clinics Active Clinical decision making / quality improvement
 University of Utah [40] Utah, U.S An integrated health system consisting of 4 hospitals, 12 primary care clinics, 23 regional partners, and 3 specialty centers Active Quality improvement
 University of Wisconsin [41, 42] Wisconsin, U.S An integrated health system with approximately 1500 physicians, and 45 primary care clinics with over 250,000 patients Active Clinical decision making / quality improvement
 Veteran’s Affairs [43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52] U.S National network across the Veterans Health Administration consisting of over 1200 healthcare centers, including primary care Active Research / quality improvement
Research / data network
 Connected health cities [53, 54] United Kingdom A network of 4 cities in North England collaborating with many organizations including NHS, hospitals, universities, and 550 primary care provider centers Completed Research / quality improvement
 Health Science South Carolina [55, 56] South Carolina, U.S A network consisting of 7 of South Carolina's largest health systems and 3 research universities with a central data warehouse Active Research / quality improvement
 Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (NUCATS) [57, 58] Chicago, U.S A network that supports clinical and translational research across Northwestern University departments, including clinical partners of Northwestern Memorial Healthcare Corporation, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, and the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, and community partners including primary care clinics Active Research / quality improvement
 Swiss Learning Health System (SLHS) [59, 60] Lucerne, Switzerland A network consisting of partner organizations: the University of Lucerne, University of Zurich, Swiss TPH Basel, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, University of Neuchâtel, University of Lugano, and University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland Planning Research
 Translational medicine and patient safety (TRANSFoRm) [61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68] Europe A network of 21 partner organisations from 10 EU member states focusing on primary care research Active Research / clinical decision making
Network of networks
 Healthcare Systems Research Network (HCSRN) [13, 69] U.S A network consisting of 19 healthcare systems across 13 states including Kaiser Permanente and Geisinger Active Research
 High Value Healthcare Collaborative (HVHC) [14, 70, 71] U.S A network consisting of 19 healthcare delivery systems, including integrated systems with primary care, from across the U.S. with the data hub at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice Active Research
 Optum Labs [72,73,74] U.S A network with headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts that standardizes EHR data across 52 health systems in the U.S Active Research
  1. Abbreviations: EHR electronic health records