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Table 4 Marginal effects of clinical comorbidities and concurrent or chronic prescriptions on the probability of receiving an opioid prescription during a primary care visit for low back pain (2012–2017)

From: How do contraindications to non-opioid analgesics and opioids affect the likelihood that patients with back pain diagnoses in the primary care setting receive an opioid prescription? An observational cross-sectional study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Full Sample
n = 24,543
No Opioid Use 45 Days Prior to Index Visit
n = 22,912
Intermittent Opioid Use Prior to Index Visit
n = 1165
Long-Term Opioid Use Prior to Index Visit
n = 437
Contraindications to NSAIDS
Kidney Disease 0.03*** (0.01, 0.04) 0.02** (0.01, 0.04) 0.09 (0, 0.18) −0.01 (− 0.18, 0.16)
Liver Disease −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.01) − 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.01) − 0.05 (− 0.15, 0.05) − 0.01 (− 0.22, 0.2)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.04) 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.03) 0.08 (− 0.19, 0.35) −0.03 (− 0.32, 0.25)
Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular Disease − 0.01 (− 0.01, 0) 0 (− 0.01, 0) −0.06* (− 0.11, − 0.01) 0.01 (− 0.08, 0.1)
Gastrointestinal Disorder, including GERD, Peptic Ulcers, or Bleeding −0.01 (− 0.01, 0) −0.01 (− 0.01, 0) −0.03 (− 0.08, 0.02) −0.06 (− 0.16, 0.05)
Index or Chronic Anticoagulant or Antiplatelet Use 0.02*** (0.01, 0.03) 0.02*** (0.01, 0.03) 0.02 (−0.03, 0.07) 0.07 (−0.02, 0.16)
Relative contraindications to opioids
  Full Sample No Opioid Use 45 Days Prior to Index Visit Intermittent Opioid Use Prior to Index Visit Long-Term Opioid Use Prior to Index Visit
Depression Disorder 0 (−0.01, 0.01) 0 (−0.01, 0.01) 0 (− 0.06, 0.06) 0.01 (− 0.12, 0.13)
Anxiety Disorder − 0.01 (− 0.01, 0) 0 (− 0.01, 0) −0.07** (− 0.11, − 0.03) 0.02 (− 0.05, 0.1)
Substance Use Disorder 0.01*(0, 0.03) 0.02** (0.01, 0.03) 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.09) 0.03 (− 0.08, 0.15)
Bipolar Disorder 0.02 (− 0.01, 0.05) 0.03 (0, 0.05) 0.15* (0, 0.3) − 0.15** (− 0.25, − 0.05)
Chronic Systemic Steroid Use −0.02* (− 0.04, 0) −0.01 (− 0.04, 0.01) −0.15 (− 0.32, 0.03)
Benzodiazepine Prescribed at Index Visit 0.07*** (0.05, 0.09) 0.06*** (0.04, 0.08) 0.15 (−0.03, 0.33) 0.10** (0.14, 0.53)
  1. Note: In all models, we also controlled for age, race, ethnicity, sex, marital status, employment status, tobacco use, year of the prescription, and chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. All models include variables that indicate contraindications for opioids and NSAIDs.* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001. Odds ratios and confidence intervals are available in the appendix
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