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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients-visits for low back pain, 2012–2017

From: How do contraindications to non-opioid analgesics and opioids affect the likelihood that patients with back pain diagnoses in the primary care setting receive an opioid prescription? An observational cross-sectional study

  No opioid prescription at office visit
n = 23,541
Opioid prescription at office visit
n = 1002
Total sample
n = 24,543
P-Value
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Total 23,541 (96.9) 1002 (4.1) 24,543 (100)
Age
 Under Age 65 17,674 (96.0) 739 (4.0) 18,413  
 Age 65 and Older 5867 (96.0) 263 (4.0) 6130 0.45
Sex
 Female 14,408 (96.1) 578 (3.9) 14,986  
 Male 9133 (95.6) 424 (4.4) 9557 0.03
Hispanic Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic 18,463 (96.0) 811 (4.0) 19,274  
 Hispanic 3762 (96.5) 137 (3.5) 3899  
 Unknown/Refused 1316 (96.5) 54 (3.5) 1370 0.13
Race
 White 13,914 (96.0) 585 (4.0) 14,499  
 Black 4427 (94.2) 274 (5.8) 4701  
 Asian/Pacific Islander 2716 (98.0) 57 (2.0) 2773  
 Other/Unknown 2484 (96.7) 86 (3.3) 2570 < 0.001
Marital Status
 Single 7399 (96.2) 296 (3.8) 7695  
 Married, Domestic Partnership, or Significant Other 12,147 (96.1) 487 (3.9) 12,634  
 Divorced, Legally Separated, or Widowed 3112 (94.3) 189 (5.7) 3301  
 Other/Unknown 883 (96.7) 30 (3.3) 913 < 0.001
Employment Status
 Full Time, Self-Employed, Part-Time or Full-Time Student 14,567 (96.1) 593 (3.9) 15,160  
 Retired 4304 (95.6) 199 (4.4) 4503  
 Disabled or Never Worked 1048 (94.2) 64 (5.8) 1112  
 Not Employed, Unknown, or Missing 3622 (96.1) 146 (3.9) 3768 0.01
Chronic NSAID Use
 No 23,238 (98.7) 985 (98.3) 24,223  
 Yes 303 (94.7) 17 (5.3) 320 0.26
Tobacco User
 Never Smoker 16,493 (96.4) 609 (3.6) 17,102  
 Ever Smoker, Quit 4911 (95.1) 251 (4.9) 5162  
 Ever Smoker, Current 1938 (93.4) 136 (6.6) 2074  
 Unknown 199 (97.1) 6 (2.9) 205 < 0.001
Opioid Use Prior to the Index Visit
 No Opioid Use 45 Days Prior to Index Visit 22,177 (96.8) 735 (3.2) 22,912  
 Intermittent Opioid Use Prior to Index Visit 1036 (86.8) 158 (13.2) 1194  
 Long-Term Opioid Use Prior to Index Visit 328 (75.1) 109 (24.9) 437 < 0.001
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