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Table 3 Types of strategy components employed by level of implementation

From: A systematic review of approaches to improve practice, detection and treatment of unhealthy alcohol use in primary health care: a role for continuous quality improvement

Organizational levelStrategy componentsReports
NationalPay-for-performance schemes, computer templates, grants for training initiatives[50, 53]
Health systemNetwork meetings, audit and feedback, performance measures, changes to information systems, training, policy and leadership engagement, implementation committees, pay-for-performance schemes[44, 48,49,50, 52, 53, 57, 59,60,61,62, 67, 70]
PracticeTraining, telephone and on-site support, written and electronic materials, practice procedures and workflow changes, financial incentives, audit and feedback, involvement of staff other than clinicians, local champions and implementation committees, introduction of specialist staff, change to consultation booking time, systems audits and support in design of improvement strategies, information sharing between sites[23,24,25,26, 28, 32, 33, 35, 36, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 49, 51, 52, 54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63, 65, 68,69,70, 73, 75, 77, 78]
ClinicianTraining, telemarketing, letters to prescribers, academic detailing, written and electronic materials/guidelines, clinical prompts, audit and feedback, facilitation of referrals[23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47, 49, 52, 54,55,56,57, 59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77]
PatientPatient activation by: pre-appointment self-assessment +/−personalized feedback, information/resource mailouts[37, 46, 49, 59]