Skip to main content

Table 4 Logistic regression analysis for guideline recommended and guideline adherent antibiotic prescriptions in uUTI

From: Treatment of urinary tract infections in Swiss primary care: quality and determinants of antibiotic prescribing

  Guideline recommendedatherapy   Guideline adherentbtherapy
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisN = 1002, GP = 145, ICC = 0.29   Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisN = 1095, GP = 154, ICC = 0.31
GP characteristics N, GP OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value N, GP OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Sex of GP = female 1067, 156 1.28 (0.67, 2.42) 0.458    1155, 161 1.22 (0.64, 2.34) 0.549   
 Age of GP 1023, 150 0.95 (0.92, 0.98) 0.003 0.96 (0.93, 0.99) 0.010 1107, 155 0.95 (0.92, 0.98) 0.005 0.96 (0.92, 0.99) 0.012
Years of GP experience in practice 991, 146 0.96 (0.93, 0.99) 0.023    1066,150 0.96 (0.94, 0.996) 0.028   
Practice type (ref = Single) 1052, 154          
 Double   2.06 (0.93, 4.54) 0.073    1139, 159 2.13 (0.96, 4.75) 0.064   
 Group   2.00 (1.02, 3.90) 0.044     1.93 (0.98, 3.81) 0.059   
Work-time % (ref = < 60%)
 61–80% 1046, 153 1.05 (0.44, 2.51) 0.919    1133, 158 1.06 (0.44, 2.57) 0.894   
 81–100%   0.43 (0.21, 0.90) 0.026     0.44 (0.21, 0.92) 0.029   
Affiliated to a medical network 1052, 154 1.16 (0.62, 2.17) 0.633    1139, 159 1.10 (0.58, 2.06) 0.772   
Language of GP (ref = German)           
 Latin 1067, 156 1.18 (0.50, 2.78) 0.703    1155, 161 1.10 (0.46, 2.63) 0.823   
Location of GPc (ref = Other regions)
Region lemanique 1067, 156 2.58 (0.78, 8.54) 0.120 2.30 (0.71, 7.43) 0.165 1155,161 2.50 (0.74, 8.39) 0.139 2.29 (0.69, 7.57) 0.176
 Ticino   0.34 (0.06, 1.98) 0.228    0.32 (0.05, 1.93) 0.214 0.36 (0.06, 2.06) 0.249
 Zürich   2.65 (1.08, 6.51) 0.033 2.19 (0.87, 5.48) 0.095   2.78 (1.13, 6.85) 0.026 2.33 (0.92, 5.92) 0.074
Patient characteristics N      N     
 Previous urinary tract infection 1114 1.22 (0.79, 1.84) 0.362    1202 1.22 (0.79, 1.83) 0.361   
 Antibiotics in the last 3 months 1112 0.75 (0.53, 1.09) 0.125    1198 0.74 (0.52, 1.07) 0.101 0.71 (0.46, 1.10) 0.123
 Treatment in the last 6 months 1117 0.84 (0.51, 1.46) 0.518    1204 0.83 (0.51, 1.44) 0.498   
Travel history within the last 12 months 1100 1.59 (1.14, 2.22) 0.006 1.30 (0.88, 1.93) 0.187 1187 1.59 (1.15, 2.21) 0.005   
 Travel within Europe 1100 1.64 (1.17, 2.29) 0.004    1187 1.62 (1.17, 2.26) 0.004   
 Travel to Asia 1100 0.84 (0.47, 1.64) 0.591    1187 0.93 (0.52, 1.80) 0.826   
 Travel to Africa 1100 2.07 (0.73, 8.66) 0.232    1187 2.31 (0.83, 9.6) 0.167   
 Travel to Nord-America 1100 1.41 (0.60, 4.15) 0.473    1187 1.37 (0.58, 4.00) 0.516   
Travel to South-America 1100 0.80 (0.35, 2.17) 0.626    1187 0.73 (0.32, 1.99) 0.502   
Initial encounter not because symptoms suspicious for an UTI 1115 1.23 (0.65, 2.59) 0.554    1202 1.36 (0.72, 2.85) 0.369   
  1. aTreatment with fosfomycin, TMP-SMX, or nitrofurantoin were rated as guideline recommended
  2. bThis group consists all patients with a recommended treatment or standby treatment, delayed prescriptions, withholding antibiotic treatment, or symptomatic therapy
  3. cLocations of GP different from Zürich, Region lemanique and Ticino was grouped into “Other regions” and defined as the reference category
  4. n number of patients; ref. reference, GP general practitioner: ICC Intraclass Correlation Coefficient; OR odds ratio; CI confidence intervals; TMP/SMX trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole
\