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Table 7 Components of patient-level data collection

From: A classification-based approach to low back pain in primary care – protocol for a benchmarking controlled trial

DomainMeasuresTime Point (months)
Descriptive dataAge and gender0
Occupation0
Weight and height0
Country of birth0
Pregnancy3, 12
LifestyleLeisure time physical activity0
Smoking0, 12
ComorbidityDiabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, depression, fibromyalgia, inflammatory bowel disease, muscle disease0
Back painPrevious back pain episode of at least two weeks’ duration0
Previous (lifetime) physician consultations related to back pain0
Frequency of LBP during last three months0, 3, 12
LBP intensity during last week, using 0–10 scale NRS (Numeral Rating Scale)0, 3, 12
Leg pain intensity during last week, using 0–10 NRS0, 3, 12
Work statusEmployment/unemployment/pension/student/unpaid work at home/other0
LBP-related sick leave during last three months0, 3
LBP-related sick leave during last nine months12
LBP-related part-time sick leave during last three months0, 3
LBP-related part-time sick leave during last nine months12
Work modifications due to LBP0, 3, 12
Use of health care resourcesPhysician consultations during last three months0,3
Physician consultations during last year12
Physiotherapist consultations during last three months0,3
Physiotherapist consultations during last year12
Nurse consultations during last three months0,3
Nurse consultations during last year12
Other health care clinician consultation (e.g. psychologist, occupational therapist) during last three months0,3
Other health care clinician consultation (e.g. psychologist, occupational therapist) during last year12
Imaging due to LBP (x-ray/MRI /CT) during last year0, 12
Imaging due to back pain (x-ray/magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography) during last three months3
Referral for imaging examinations (x-ray/MRI/CT) due to back pain0, 3, 12
MedicationOver-the-counter pain medication during last week0, 3,12
Prescription pain medication (paracetamol/anti-inflammatory/mild opioid/strong opioid/others)0, 3, 12
SurgerySpine operation12
Patient satisfactionWith information related to pain explanation0, 3, 12
With self-efficacy0, 3, 12
With health care provider’s skills0, 3, 12
With being heard and understood in terms of symptoms0, 3, 12
Pain and disabilityPROMIS PF-20 (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, 20-item physical functioning short form)0, 3, 12
STarT Back Tool0, 12
Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire0
Oswestry Disability Index0, 3, 12
Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire0, 12
BeliefsFABQ (Fear avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire)0, 12
PSEQ (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire)0, 12
BBQ (Back Beliefs Questionnaire)0, 3
Depressive symptomsDEPS (Depression Scale)0
Work abilityCurrent work ability compared with lifetime best (0–10)0, 3, 12
Work ability in relation to demands of job0, 12
Estimated work impairment due to disease0, 12
Own prognosis of work ability two years from now0, 12
Health-related quality of lifeEQ 5D (EuroQol five dimensions)0, 3, 12
  1. MRI magnetic resonance imaging, CT computed tomography