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Table 4 Secondary outcomes

From: A classification-based approach to low back pain in primary care – protocol for a benchmarking controlled trial

Pain and disability
 Oswestry Disability Index, change from baseline to 3- and 12-month follow-up Roland Morris disability questionnaire, change from baseline to 12-month follow-up
 PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) (short form 20a), change from baseline to 3-month follow-up
 Frequency of LBP during last 3 months, change from baseline to 3- and 12-month follow-ups
 LBP intensity (0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS)) during last week, change from baseline to 3- and 12-month follow-ups
 Leg pain intensity (NRS) during last week change from baseline to 3- and 12-month follow-ups
 SBT (STarT Back Tool) change from baseline to 12-month follow-up
Health-related quality of life
 EQ-5D (EuroQol five dimensions) change from baseline to 12-month follow-up
Direct costs
 Physician visits during last year
 Physiotherapist visits during last year
 Nurse visits during last year
 Other health care professional visits (e.g. psychologist) during last year
 Imaging due to LBP (x-ray/MRI/CT) during last year
 Pain medication during first year
 Back surgery rate
Indirect costs
 Days on sick leave during last year (LBP-related and all sick leaves)
 Disability pensions during first year