Skip to main content

Table 1 Results of the studies with an evaluation of the four characteristics of interest: cognitive, functional, physical and nutritional status

From: Cognitive, functional, physical, and nutritional status of the oldest old encountered in primary care: a systematic review

Author
(year of study, country) [references]
Sample size
[Living in: Home (H) and or Nursing Home (NH)]
CognitionFunctional statusNutritionPhysical status
De Rango F et al. (2007, Italy) [27]Age ≥ 90: 400
[H,NH]
MMSEa (women; men)
Dementia <  18: 74.6%; 47.2%
Moderate dementia 18–23: 21.9%; 41.7%
Mild dementia or normal > 23: 3.5%; 11.0%
ADL (women; men)
Independence for the relevant activity
Feeding 73.4%; 83.3%
Transfer 46.1%; 64.1%
Dress and undress 40.2%; 59.6%
Use toilet 40.2%; 59.6%
Bath or shower 26.6%; 35.9%
BMIb
Median (IR): 23.34 (5.1)
Mean (SD): 23.68 (3.96)
Hand gripc (kg)
Women mean (SD): 10.85 (4. 65)
Men mean (SD): 16.29 (8.84)
Herr M et al. (2010, France) [32]Age ≥ 90: 512
[Not specified]
MMSEa
≤ 26: 124 (26.3%)
<  20: 124 (24.2%)
Need help for ADL: 167 (33%)
Need help for IADL: 343 (67.9%)
Weight loss and/or thinness
Women: 48 (14.2%)
Men: 15 (9.3%)
Lack of physical strength: 307 (59.9%)
Low level of physical activity (IPAQ)e: 317 (61.9%)
Nybo H et al (1998, Denmark) [44]Age ≥ 95: 2262
[H,NH]
MMSEa
Mild dementia or normal ≥ 23: 791 (34.9%)
Moderate dementia 18–22: 575 (25.4%)
Severe dementia 0–17: 398 (17.5%)
ADL
Not disabled: 966 (42.7%)
Moderately disabled: 807 (35.6%)
Severely disabled: 458 (20.2%)
BMIb
< 22: 885 (39.1%)
22–27: 1069 (47.2%)
≥ 28: 222 (9%)
Hand gripc
Could complete 1649 (91.1%)
Could not complete: 160 (8.8%)
Chair stand
Stand without use of arms: 909
Stand with use of arms: 680
Could not complete: 220 (9.5%)
von Heideken P et al (2000, Sweden) [48]Age ≥ 90: 145
Age 90–94:
83
Age 95+: 62
[H,NH]
MMSEa mean (range)
Age 90–94
Women: 23 (2–30)
Men: 25 (16–29)
Age 95+
Women: 17 (0–28)
Men: 22 (5–29)
Dementia
Age 90–94
Women: 19 (31%)
Men: 3 (14%)
Age 95+
Women: 25 (50%)
Men: 3 (25%)
P-ADL Independent
Age 90–94
Women: 27 (44%)
Men: 15 (71%)
Age 95+
Women: 10 (20%)
Men: 5 (42%)
ADL Independent
Age 90–94
Women: 7 (11%)
Men: 6 (29%)
Age 95+
Women: 2 (4%)
Men: 2 (17%)
MNAd mean (range)
Age 90–94
Women: 22.5 (13.5–26.5)
Men: 25 (19–27)
Age 95+
Women: 19 (10–27)
Men: 25 (21–29)
Usual gait speed (m/s)
Median (10th–90th perc)
Age 90–94
Women: 0.41 (0.18–0.69)
Men: 0.51 (0.27–1.02)
Age 95+
Women: 0.41 (0.21–0.64)
Men: 0.54 (0.19–0.81)
Fastest gait speed (m/s)
Median (10th–90th perc)
Age 90–94
Women: 0.75 (0.35–1.03)
Men: 0.81 (0.39–1.33)
Age 95+
Women: 0.69 (0.46–1.06)
Men: 0.92 (0.20–1.41)
Three chair stands (sec)
Median (10th–90th perc)
Age 90–94
Women: 11.9 (9–20.9)
Men: 11.9 (8.3–26.3)
Age 95+
Women: 18.5 (10.3–24.7)
Men: 12.2 (2.8–16)
  1. ADL Activities of Daily Living, BMI Body Mass Index, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, MNA Mini Nutritional Assessment, P-ADL Performance of Activities of Daily Living.
  2. aMMSE ranged from 0 to 30 (normal)
  3. bBMI rates: Underweight ≤18.5, Normal weight = 18.5–24.9, Overweight = 25–29.9, Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
  4. cHand Grip Strength: Individuals over 75 mean (SD) in kg: Women right hand: 19.0 (5), left hand: 17.0 (4) / Men right hand: 29.8 (9), left hand: 24.9 (7)
  5. dMNA rates: Normal = 24–30, At risk of malnutrition = 17–23.5, Malnourished: < 17
  6. e3 levels of activity were distinguished (low, moderate and high) according to time spent walking and doing moderate (for instance, carrying light loads, leisure bicycle ride, tennis) and vigorous activity (for instance, carrying heavy loads, digging, lifting a pack of 6 bottles or speed bicycle) during the past 7 days