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Table 5 Factors associated with primary care service use in the last 12 months of life, using all deaths post QoF, N = 46,703

From: Primary care service use by end-of-life cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom

  GP consultation   GP prescription   GP referral to other specialities   Palliative care needs recognised or not  
Palliative care (ref: Yes) No 1.32(1.31 to 1.34) < 0.0001 1.17(1.15 to 1.19) < 0.0001 1.23(1.19 to 1.26) < 0.0001   
Age at death (ref: < 50) 50–59 0.95(0.92 to 0.99) < 0.0001 1.13(1.06 to 1.20) < 0.0001 1.10(1.00 to 1.20) < 0.0001 0.98(0.94 to 1.02) < 0.0001
60–69 0.93(0.90 to 0.97)   1.19(1.12 to 1.26)   1.18(1.08 to 1.28)   0.88(0.85 to 0.92)  
70–79 0.90(0.87 to 0.94)   1.27(1.20 to 1.34)   1.25(1.15 to 1.35)   0.81(0.78 to 0.85)  
80–89 0.84(0.81 to 0.87)   1.36(1.29 to 1.44)   1.23(1.13 to 1.34)   0.70(0.67 to 0.73)  
90+ 0.78(0.75 to 0.81)   1.49(1.40 to 1.59)   1.10(0.99 to 1.21)   0.56(0.53 to 0.59)  
Gender (ref: female) Male 0.95(0.94 to 0.96) < 0.0001 0.90(0.88 to 0.91) < 0.0001 1.00(0.97 to 1.03) 0.96 0.97(0.96 to 0.99) 0.006
Cancer site (ref: Lung) Colorectal 1.00(0.98 to 1.02) < 0.0001 1.06(1.03 to 1.09) < 0.0001 1.06(1.01 to 1.10) < 0.0001 0.78(0.75 to 0.80) < 0.0001
Breast 1.03(1.02 to 1.04)   0.97(0.95 to 0.99)   0.99(0.95 to 1.02)   0.90(0.88 to 0.93)  
Prostate 1.21(1.19 to 1.23)   1.14(1.11 to 1.17)   1.19(1.14 to 1.24)   0.76(0.73 to 0.78)  
No. comorbid conditions (ref: 0) 1 1.09(1.06 to 1.13) < 0.0001 1.20(1.17 to 1.23) < 0.0001 1.05(1.01 to 1.09) < 0.0001 1.06(1.03 to 1.08) < 0.0001
2 1.33(1.29 to 1.37)   1.45(1.42 to 1.49)   1.13(1.09 to 1.17)   1.06(1.03 to 1.09)  
3 1.11(1.07 to 1.14)   1.69(1.64 to 1.74)   1.21(1.16 to 1.26)   1.05(1.02 to 1.08)  
4+ 1.06(1.03 to 1.10)   2.04(1.97 to 2.10)   1.30(1.24 to 1.38)   0.99(0.95 to 1.03)  
Time between diagnosis and death (ref: 120+) < 6 1.01(0.98 to 1.04) 0 < .0001 0.97(0.93 to 1.02) < 0.0001 1.54(1.42 to 1.67) < 0.0001 1.13(1.07 to 1.20) < 0.0001
6–12 0.79(0.77 to 0.81)   1.08(1.03 to 1.13)   1.43(1.32 to 1.54)   1.38(1.31 to 1.45)  
13–36 0.89(0.81 to 0.98)   1.06(1.01 to 1.10)   0.90(0.84 to 0.98)   1.42(1.35 to 1.50)  
37–60 1.04(0.95 to 1.14)   1.03(0.98 to 1.08)   0.93(0.86 to 1.01)   1.32(1.25 to 1.40)  
61–120 1.30(1.09 to 1.54)   0.98(0.94 to 1.03)   0.95(0.88 to 1.02)   1.17(1.11 to 1.24)  
Year of death (ref: 2010–2014) 2006–2009 1.18(1.16 to 1.19) < 0.0001 0.92(0.90 to 0.94) < 0.0001 0.93(0.88 to 0.97) 0.003 0.86(0.84 to 0.88) < 0.0001
Region (ref: England) Wales 1.24(1.22 to 1.26) 0.011 1.14(1.07 to 1.22) < 0.0001 1.19(1.00 to 1.42) < 0.0001 0.98(0.91 to 1.05) 0.50
Scotland 1.07(1.06 to 1.09)   0.85(0.80 to 0.89)   0.62(0.49 to 0.77)   1.00(0.95 to 1.06)  
NI 1.34(1.31 to 1.37)   1.00(0.92 to 1.08)   1.35(1.10 to 1.66)   0.91(0.79 to 1.04)