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Table 2 Factors associated with primary care service use in the 12 months of life, N = 68,523

From: Primary care service use by end-of-life cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom

VariableValueGP consultation GP prescription GP referral to other specialities Palliative care needs recognised or not 
Palliative careYes1.30(1.29 to 1.32)< 0.00011.17(1.16 to 1.19)< 0.00011.22(1.19 to 1.26)< 0.0001 
Age at death (ref: < 50)50–590.96(0.93 to 0.99)< 0.00011.09(1.03 to 1.14)< 0.00011.08(1.00 to 1.18)< 0.00010.99(0.95 to 1.03)< 0.0001
60–690.94(0.91 to 0.96) 1.18(1.12 to 1.24) 1.13(1.04 to 1.23) 0.89(0.86 to 0.93) 
70–790.92(0.89 to 0.94) 1.24(1.18 to 1.30) 1.16(1.07 to 1.25) 0.81(0.78 to 0.84) 
80–890.85(0.83 to 0.88) 1.32(1.25 to 1.39) 1.13(1.04 to 1.22) 0.69(0.66 to 0.72) 
90+0.77(0.75 to 0.80) 1.44(1.36 to 1.52) 0.99(0.91 to 1.09) 0.53(0.50 to 0.56) 
Gender (ref: female)Male0.96(0.95 to 0.97)< 0.00010.90(0.89 to 0.92)< 0.00010.99(0.97 to 1.02)0.510.97(0.95 to 0.99)0.003
Cancer site (ref: Lung)Colorectal0.98(0.97 to 1.00)< 0.00011.05(1.03 to 1.08)< 0.00011.04(1.01 to 1.09)< 0.00010.78(0.75 to 0.80)< 0.0001
Breast1.01(1.00 to 1.02) 0.96(0.95 to 0.98) 1.00(0.97 to 1.03) 0.91(0.89 to 0.93) 
Prostate1.19(1.17 to 1.21) 1.14(1.12 to 1.17) 1.21(1.17 to 1.26) 0.76(0.74 to 0.79) 
No. comorbid conditions (ref: 0)11.09(1.08 to 1.11)< 0.00011.21(1.18 to 1.23)< 0.00011.07(1.03 to 1.11)< 0.00011.07(1.04 to 1.09)< 0.0001
21.20(1.19 to 1.22) 1.45(1.42 to 1.48) 1.14(1.10 to 1.18) 1.08(1.05 to 1.10) 
31.17(1.15 to 1.19) 1.68(1.64 to 1.72) 1.24(1.19 to 1.29) 1.08(1.04 to 1.11) 
4+1.26(1.24 to 1.28) 2.03(1.98 to 2.09) 1.32(1.25 to 1.39) 1.01(0.97 to 1.05) 
Time between diagnosis and death (ref: 120+)0–51.07(1.04 to 1.11)0.00010.95(0.91 to 0.99)< 0.00011.53(1.42 to 1.65)< 0.00011.11(1.06 to 1.17)< 0.0001
6–121.31(1.27 to 1.35) 1.07(1.02 to 1.12) 1.41(1.30 to 1.52) 1.38(1.31 to 1.45) 
13–361.10(1.07 to 1.13) 1.05(1.01 to 1.09) 0.92(0.86 to 0.99) 1.41(1.34 to 1.49) 
37–601.05(1.01 to 1.08) 1.03(0.98 to 1.07) 0.96(0.89 to 1.05) 1.32(1.25 to 1.39) 
61–1201.01(0.98 to 1.03) 0.98(0.94 to 1.02) 0.98(0.91 to 1.05) 1.17(1.11 to 1.23) 
Year of death (ref: 2010–2014)2000–20040.64(0.62 to 0.66)< 0.00010.79(0.77 to 0.80)< 0.00011.13(1.01 to 1.25)< 0.00010.48(0.45 to 0.51)< 0.0001
2005–20090.86(0.84 to 0.88) 0.91(0.89 to 0.93) 0.93(0.88 to 0.97) 0.81(0.78 to 0.83) 
Region (ref: England)Wales0.85(0.75 to 0.96)0.0051.15(1.08 to 1.22)< 0.00011.23(1.01 to 1.49)0.0070.98(0.91 to 1.06)0.62
Scotland1.06(0.96 to 1.17) 0.87(0.83 to 0.91) 0.77(0.61 to 0.97) 0.99(0.93 to 1.05) 
Northern Ireland1.34(1.09 to 1.64) 1.01(0.93 to 1.09) 1.14(0.95 to 1.35) 0.91(0.78 to 1.06)