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Table 3 Factors associated with perceived pressure (pressured by patient to grant the request)

From: Physicians’ experiences with euthanasia: a cross-sectional survey amongst a random sample of Dutch physicians to explore their concerns, feelings and pressure

 Refused casesUnivariable logistic regressionGranted casesUnivariable logistic regression
No pressurePressureNo pressurePressure
N = 96N = 146OR (95% CI)N = 211N = 32OR (95% CI)
Patient characteristics
 Gender
  Male43 (46.2%)55 (37.9%)Reference116 (55.0%)12 (37.5%)Reference
  Female50 (53.8%)90 (62.1%)1.41 (0.83–2.39)95 (45.0%)20 (62.5%)2.04 (0.95–4.38)
 Age (year)
  ≤ 6445 (46.9%)48 (32.9%)Reference53 (25.2%)11 (34.4%)Reference
  65–7926 (27.1%)44 (30.1%)1.59 (0.84–2.99)97 (46.2%)11 (34.4%)0.55 (0.22–1.34)
  ≥ 8025 (26.0%)54 (37.0%)2.03 (1.08–3.78)60 (28.6%)10 (31.3%)0.80 (0.32–2.04)
 Cancer
  No69 (72.6%)126 (87.5%) 91 (43.3%)19 (59.4%)Reference
  Yes26 (27.4%)18 (12.5%)0.38 (0.19–0.74)119 (56.7%)13 (40.6%)0.52 (0.25–1.12)
 Presence psychiatric disorder
  No61 (63.5%)79 (54.1%)Reference197 (93.4%)30 (93.8%)Reference
  Yes35 (36.5%)67 (45.9%)1.48 (0.87–2.51)14 (6.6%)2 (6.3%)0.94 (0.20–4.34)
 Life-expectancy
  < 1 month15 (15.8%)7 (4.8%)Reference46 (21.8%)4 (12.5%)Reference
  1–5 months10 (10.5%)12 (8.2%)2.57 (0.75–8.78)91 (43.1%)10 (31.3%)1.26 (0.38–4.25)
  ≥ 6 months70 (73.7%)127 (87.0%)3.89 (1.51–9.99)74 (35.1%)18 (56.3%)2.80 (0.89–8.78)
 Communication possible
  Less than good (reasonable-barely)42 (43.8%)64 (44.1%)Reference16 (7.6%)3 (9.4%)Reference
  Good54 (56.3%)81 (55.9%)0.98 (0.59–1.66)195 (92.4%)29 (90.6%)0.79 (0.22–2.89)
 Opinions of relatives regarding the request
  Not supporting (neutral, divided, opposing)54 (56.8%)94 (64.8%)Reference10 (4.7%)4 (12.5%)Reference
  Supporting41 (43.2%)51 (35.2%)0.72 (0.42–1.21)201 (95.3%)28 (87.5%)0.35 (0.10–1.19)
Physician characteristics
 Specialty
  General practitioner42 (43.8%)71 (49.3%)Reference151 (73.7%)21 (67.7%)Reference
  Elderly care physician18 (18.8%)25 (17.4%)0.82 (0.40–1.68)28 (13.7%)5 (16.1%)1.28 (0.45–3.69)
  Medical specialist12 (12.5%)7 (4.9%)0.35 (0.13–0.95)18 (8.8%)3 (9.7%)1.20 (0.33–4.42)
  Psychiatrist24 (25.0%)41 (28.5%)1.01 (0.54–1.90)8 (3.9%)2 (6.5%)1.80 (0.36–9.04)
 Gender
  Male40 (42.6%)64 (44.1%)Reference104 (49.8%)19 (59.4%)Reference
  Female54 (57.4%)81 (55.9%)0.94 (0.56–1.58)105 (50.2%)13 (40.6%)0.68 (0.32–1.44)
 Age (year)
  ≤ 3920 (20.8%)16 (11.0%)Reference49 (23.2%)5 (15.6%)Reference
  40–5454 (56.3%)79 (54.1%)1.83 (0.87–3.84)83 (39.3%)19 (59.4%)2.24 (0.79–6.39)
  ≥5522 (22.9%)51 (34.9%)2.90 (1.27–6.62)79 (37.4%)8 (25.0%)0.99 (0.31–3.21)
 Number of explicit request received in the last year
  040 (41.6%)54 (37.0%)0.54 (0.26–1.14)52 (24.6%)10 (31.3%)1.41 (0.48–4.19)
  123 (24.0%)34 (23.3%)0.59 (0.26–1.34)68 (32.2%)9 (28.1%)0.97 (0.32–2.92)
  219 (19.8%)23 (15.7%)0.48 (0.20–1.15)47 (22.3%)7 (21.9%)1.09 (0.34–3.50)
   ≥ 314 (14.6%)35 (24.0%)Reference44 (20.9%)6 (18.8%)Reference
  1. Missings: Refused cases missings varied between 6 and 10 (2.4–4.0%), Granted cases missings varied between 2 and 9 (0.8–3.7%). Bold indicates statistical significance (p < 0.05)