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Table 2 Lifestyle behaviours and risk factors after the event by sex

From: Lifestyle behaviours in patients with established cardiovascular diseases: a European observational study

 Males
(N = 658)
Females
(N = 315)
p-value
Lifestyle behaviours
Smokers, % (95% CI)Before event262 (39.82%)73 (23.17%)< 0.001
After event99 (15.05%)38 (12.06%)0.211
Risky drinkers, % (95% CI)Before event111 (16.87%)9 (2.86%)< 0.001
After event44 (6.69%)4 (1.27%)< 0.001
Lack of physical activity (IPAQ inactive)190 (28.88%)119 (37.78%)< 0.001
Patients that have been advised to increase physical activity548 (83.28%)255 (80.95%)0.370
Patients that have increased their physical activity?288 (43.77%)124 (39.37%)0.193
Nutritionally poor eating behaviours (Mediterranean diet score 0–3 points)218 (33.13%)70 (22.22%)0.007
Patients that have been advised to change their diet566 (86.02%)261 (82.86%)0.196
Patients that have improved their diet (after event)458 (69.6%)208 (66.03%)0.262
Cardiovascular risk factors
Overweight/Obesity (BMI > 25)499 (78.09%)
(n = 639)
231 (75.99%)
(n = 304)
0.505
Diagnosis of hypertension470 (71.43%)235 (74.60%)0.300
Diagnosis of diabetes211 (32.07%)80 (25.40%)0.033
Diagnosis of dyslipidaemia483 (73.40%)211 (66.98%)0.038
Diagnosis of CHD417 (63.37%)156 (49.52%)< 0.001
Diagnosis of Stroke231 (35.11%)155 (49.21%)
Diagnosis of CHD and Stroke10 (1.52%)4 (1.27%)
Controla of blood pressure (<  140/90 mmHg)486 (73.86%)239 (75.87%)0.500
Controla of LDL cholesterol (<  70 mg/dl)169 (25.68%)54 (17.14%)0.003
  1. aMissing values were considered as no control. CHD Coronary heart disease. IPAQ International Physical Activity questionnaire. BMI Body Mass Index