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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate regression of VAS with medical, social and psychological factors (GPs’ perspective)

From: Factors associated with patients’ and GPs’ assessment of the burden of treatment in multimorbid patients: a cross-sectional study in primary care

Description Value Unvariable regressions Multivariable regression
Beta coefficient (95% CI) p-value Beta coefficient (95% CI) p-value VIF*
Patient’s age in years   −0.014 (− 0.023;-0.005) 0.002 −0.015 (− 0.023;-0.007) < 0.001 1.185
Patient’s gender   −0.213 (− 0.428;0.002) 0.052    
Location of practice (ref: Urban) Semi-urban/suburban 0.000 (−0.417;0.417) 1.000    
Rural 0.065 (−0.491;0.620) 0.820    
Marital status (ref: Single) Married −0.226 (− 0.602;0.149) 0.237    
Separated/divorced 0.110 (−0.318;0.538) 0.614    
Widow −0.211 (− 0.614;0.193) 0.306    
Highest level of schooling achieved (ref: Compulsory education) Upper secondary level −0.116 (− 0.402;0.171) 0.428    
Tertiary level −0.123 (− 0.408;0.162) 0.398    
GP assessment of number of chronic conditions   0.165 (0.124;0.206) < 0.001 0.069 (0.031;0.107) < 0.001 1.239
CIRCS   1.765 (1.488;2.042) < 0.001 1.267 (1.015;1.520) < 0.001 1.088
Total number of different pharmacological treatment the patient is currently taking   0.196 (0.165;0.227) < 0.001 0.102 (0.070;0.134) < 0.001 1.380
Use of a pillbox (dispenser)   0.595 (0.383;0.807) < 0.001 0.136 (−0.045;0.317) 0.142 1.106
Home-based care (patient report)   0.964 (0.623;1.305) < 0.001 0.336 (0.041;0.631) 0.026 1.133
Total EQ-5D-3 L score   −0.036 (−0.042;-0.031) < 0.001 −0.016 (− 0.022;-0.010) < 0.001 1.681
EQ-5D-3 L health scale (VAS, 0–100)   −0.026 (− 0.031;-0.020) < 0.001 −0.005 (− 0.010;0.000) 0.056 1.393
Deprivation score (DipCare)   0.496 (0.385;0.607) < 0.001    
Health literacy score (HLS EU 6)   −0.612 (−0.855;-0.369) < 0.001 − 0.176 (− 0.382;0.030) 0.093 1.133
Hypertension   −0.150 (− 0.396;0.096) 0.231    
Cardiovascular risk   −0.225 (− 0.453;0.002) 0.052    
Diabetes   −0.047 (− 0.279;0.185) 0.691    
Obesity   −0.027 (− 0.261;0.207) 0.823    
Ischemic heart disease   0.156 (−0.079;0.392) 0.193    
Depression   0.673 (0.429;0.916) < 0.001    
Knee osteoarthritis   0.192 (−0.060;0.445) 0.136    
General pain   0.794 (0.534;1.055) < 0.001 0.198 (−0.029;0.425) 0.087 1.135
Atrial fibrillation   0.287 (0.024;0.549) 0.032 0.233 (0.009;0.457) 0.042 1.135
  1. * variance inflation factor to exclude co-linearity