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Table 3 Example of medication patterns across women 65–79 years attended in primary health centres in Barcelona during 2009 (N = 78,008)

From: Medication patterns in older adults with multimorbidity: a cluster analysis of primary care patients

  Code& Drugs Preb O/E ratioa Exclus.
Cluster 1 n = 39,202 (50%)
 Non-specific pattern C10AA HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 32% 0.78 39%
A02BC Proton pump inhibitors 21% 0.51 26%
Cluster 2 n = 14,604 (19%)
 Nervous system pattern A02BC Proton pump inhibitors 70% 1.68 31%
N05BA Benzodiazepine derivatives 58% 2.18 41%
C10AA HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 56% 1.36 25%
N06AB Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 40% 2.71 51%
B01AC Platelet aggregation inhibitors excl. Heparin 35% 1.76 33%
M05BA Bisphosphonates 28% 1.62 30%
N02BE Anilides 26% 1.10 21%
N06AX Other antidepressants 14% 3.49 65%
N03AX Other antiepileptics 10% 3.16 59%
N05CD Benzodiazepine derivatives 9% 2.03 38%
A12AA Calcium 7% 2.58 48%
N06AA Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors 7% 3.07 57%
C01DA Organic nitrates 7% 2.32 43%
N02AX Other opioids 6% 2.03 38%
A11CC Vitamin D and analogues 6% 2.97 56%
A06AD Osmotically acting laxatives 6% 2.04 38%
N03AE Benzodiazepine derivatives 4% 3.69 69%
C07AA Beta blocking agents, non-selective 4% 2.61 49%
H02AB Glucocorticoids 4% 2.71 51%
C10AX Other lipid modifying agents 4% 2.25 42%
N06DX Other anti-dementia drugs 3% 2.44 46%
A03FA Propulsive 3% 2.25 42%
Cluster 3 n = 9502 (12%)
 “Musculo-skeletal system” and “Dermatologicals” pattern A02BC Proton pump inhibitors 66% 1.58 19%
N02BE Anilides 61% 2.57 31%
N05BA Benzodiazepine derivatives 33% 1.26 15%
M02AA Antiinflammatory preparations, non-steroids for tropical use 31% 5.96 73%
C10AA HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 30% 0.74 9%
M01AE Propionic acid derivatives 27% 4.30 52%
C05CA Bioflavonoids 19% 2.88 35%
M01AX Other antiinflammatory and antirheumatic agents, non-steroids 17% 2.84 35%
A02AD Combinations and complexes of aluminium, calcium and magnesium compounds 15% 4.24 52%
M01AB Acetic acid derivatives and related substances 15% 5.17 63%
D01AC Imidazole and triazole derivatives 10% 5.93 72%
N02AX Other opioids 10% 3.25 40%
D07AC Corticosteroidas, potent (group III) 9% 6.65 81%
N02BB Pyrazolones 6% 5.30 65%
A06AD Osmotically acting laxatives 6% 2.13 26%
R05CB Mucolytics 5% 2.83 34%
R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use 5% 3.34 41%
N07CA Antivertigo preparations 5% 2.26 28%
Cluster 4 n = 8745 (11%)
 Alimentary tract and metabolism pattern C10AA HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 68% 1.67 19%
A10BA Biguanides 65% 5.86 66%
B01AC Platelet aggregation inhibitors excl. Heparin 61% 3.12 35%
A02BC Proton pump inhibitors 50% 1.19 13%
A10BB Sulfonylureas 37% 6.69 75%
C09AA ACE inhibitors, plain 30% 1.70 19%
C08CA Dihydropyridine derivatives 29% 2.68 30%
C07AB Beta blocking agents, selective 23% 2.18 24%
N02BE Anilides 22% 0.94 10%
A10AC Insulins and analogues for injection, intermediate-acting 10% 6.34 71%
C01DA Organic nitrates 9% 3.22 36%
A10AE Insulins and analogues for injection, long-acting 9% 6.04 68%
M04AA Preparations inhibiting uric acid production 9% 2.97 33%
C02CA Alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists 7% 3.57 40%
C10AB Fibrates 7% 2.96 33%
A10AD Insulins and analogues for injection, intermediate- or long- acting combined with fast- acting 7% 6.24 70%
G04CA Alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists 4% 2.13 24%
C10AX Other lipid modifying agents 4% 2.36 26%
Cluster 5 n = 3275 (4%)
 Respiratory system pattern R03AC Selective beta-2-adrenoreceptor agonists 72% 16.88 71%
A02BC Proton pump inhibitors 54% 1.30 5%
R03BB Anticholinergics 54% 18.86 79%
R03AK Adrenergics in combination with corticosteroids or other drugs, excl. Anticholinergics 51% 11.87 50%
R03BA Glucocorticoids 40% 18.45 77%
C10AA HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 38% 0.94 4%
N02BE Anilides 32% 1.36 6%
N05BA Benzodiazepine derivatives 27% 1.01 4%
B01AC Platelet aggregation inhibitors excl. Heparin 23% 1.17 5%
C03CA Sulfonamides, plain 14% 2.11 9%
R05CB Mucolytics 11% 6.34 27%
R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use 6% 3.79 16%
C08DB Benzothiazepine derivatives 5% 2.26 9%
H02AB Glucocorticoids 4% 3.07 13%
G04CA Alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists 4% 2.02 8%
Cluster 6 n = 2680 (3%)
 Cardiovascular system pattern B01AA Vitamin K antagonists 78% 15.74 54%
C03CA Sulfonamides, plain 66% 10.05 35%
A02BC Proton pump inhibitors 58% 1.37 5%
C01AA Digitalis glycosides 53% 27.60 95%
C10AA HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 43% 1.06 4%
N02BE Anilides 32% 1.35 5%
N05BA Benzodiazepine derivatives 29% 1.11 4%
C09AA ACE inhibitors, plain 27% 1.56 5%
C07AB Beta blocking agents, selective 24% 2.25 8%
C09CA Angiotensin II antagonists, plain 23% 1.98 7%
A12BA Potassium 20% 16.35 56%
C03DA Aldosterone antagonists 19% 17.02 58%
C08DB Benzothiazepine derivatives 13% 6.07 21%
C07AG Alpha and beta blocking agents 12% 8.91 31%
M04AA Preparations inhibiting uric acid production 11% 3.73 13%
C01DA Organic nitrates 9% 3.26 11%
B03AA Iron bivalent, oral preparations 5% 3.60 12%
A10AE Insulins and analogues for injection, long-acting 3% 2.30 8%
A02BA H2 - receptor antagonists 3% 2.12 7%
  1. Code&:Chemical subgroup, 4rt level, ATC code (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification) from the World Health Organization
  2. O/E ratioa: Observed/expected ratio
  3. Preb: Prevalence
  4. Exclus.: Exclusivity
  5. Selected criteria: Prevalence ≥ 20 or Observed/Expected ratio ≥ 2