Skip to main content

Table 3 Categorisation matrix for SDM with older patients with multimorbidity

From: Goal setting is insufficiently recognised as an essential part of shared decision-making in the complex care of older patients: a framework analysis

   GP_01 CG_02 CG_03 GP_04 CG_05 GP_06 CG_07 CG_08 GP_09 GP_10 CG_11 CG_12 GP_13 CG_14 GP_15 CG_16 CG_17 CG_18 CG_19 GP_20 GP_21 CG_22 GP_23 GP_24 CG_25 GP_26 GP_27 GP_28 CG_29 CG_30 GP_31 CG_32 CG_33
Essential elements
 Define/explain problem     x x        x        x     x    x   x   x   x x
 Present options    x    x   x x   x x   x    x            x   x   x  
 Discuss pros/consa      x   x x x   x       x          x   x      
 Patient values/preferences x   x x x   x x x x    x x   x      x x     x   x x x    
 Discuss patient ability/self-efficacy     x                              
 Doctor knowledgeb x   x x x x x x   x   x x x   x       x     x   x x x   x x
 Check/clarify understanding          x x    x                     
 Make or explicitly defer decision       x    x x x x x   x   x x x   x x x x x x   x   x   x  
 Arrange follow-up      x                     x         
Ideal elements                                  
 Unbiased information    x   x                  x            
 Define roles c                                  
 Present evidence           x                        
 Mutual agreement       x    x x      x   x   x x x       x       
General qualities
 Deliberation/negotiation     x    x      x x x x      x    x    x   x x     
 Flexibility d     x x       x x       x                
 Information exchange        x        x                    
 Involves at least two people                                  
Middle ground
 Mutual respect              x                     
 Partnership   x   x               x x x    x   x     x    x x
 Patient education                                  
 Patient participation   x        x x x   x    x x     x x   x      x     
 Process/stages x                                 
Goals and/or goal-setting   x x x x   x     x x     x   x x x      x   x   x   x x  
  1. Note: This table shows the categorisation matrix and results per clinician. The integrative model of shared decision-making of Makoul and Clayman [18] completed with the additional element goals and/or goal-setting was used as categorisation matrix. At the horizontal axis the interviewees are shown, with GP referring to a general practitioner and CG to clinical geriatrician. The vertical axis shows the essential elements, ideal elements, general qualities and the additional element goals and/or goal-setting. Essential elements are elements being conditional for the process of SDM. Ideal elements may enhance the experience of SDM, but relevance, necessity and applicability are dependent on the type of encounter. General qualities are useful in providing an overall sense of SDM, but are not reducible to specific behavior
  2. a/benefits/risks/costs
  3. b and recommendations
  4. cand desire for involvement
  5. d/individualised approach/cyclical