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Table 1 Essential elements, ideal elements and general qualities of SDM

From: Goal setting is insufficiently recognised as an essential part of shared decision-making in the complex care of older patients: a framework analysis

Essential elements Ideal elements General qualities
Define/explain problem Unbiased information Deliberation/negotiation
Present options Define roles Flexibility
Discuss pros/cons Present evidence Information exchange
Patient values/preferences Mutual agreement Involves at least two people
Discuss patient ability/self-efficacy   Middle ground
Doctor knowledge/recommendations   Mutual respect
Check/clarify understanding   Partnership
Make or explicitly defer decision   Patient education
Arrange follow-up   Patient participation
   Process/stages
  1. Note: Table 1 provides an overview of essential elements, ideal elements and general qualities of SDM, based on the research of Makoul and Clayman [18]. Their integrative model of SDM is restricted to the essential elements because it was intended to encompass different clinical contexts, types of decisions and levels of involvement. The ideal elements may enhance the SDM process but are more applicable to some encounters than others, and not necessary for SDM to take place. The general qualities provide an overall sense of SDM; however, these are not specific to SDM