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Table 2 Overview of themes and subthemes for each Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) construct

From: Qualitative evaluation of a pilot educational intervention to increase primary care HIV-testing

NPT Construct Theme Subtheme
  Pre-training HIV testing
  Testing situations (e.g. opportunistic, patient characteristics and behaviours, appointment type, consultation presentation with “obvious” indicator conditions)
Perceived adequacy
Nurse vs GP testing
Patient acceptability
Confidence to offer a test
Pre-training HCP knowledge  
Perceived need for training  
Cognitive participation
  Experience of training
  Content (e.g. appropriate to knowledge level)
Delivery (e.g. location, length, interactive format)
Impact of training
  Intentions to change testing practice
Awareness and knowledge (e.g. need to test early, indicator conditions, HIV prevalence in practice population)
Confidence to test
Collective action
  When to test
  HIV testing normalised / viewed as routine
Increased consideration of HIV testing
Presence of indicator conditions and atypical, unexplained and persistent infections
Patient response to offer of HIV test
Nurses and Healthcare Assistants empowered to offer HIV tests
Changes in number of HIV tests
How testing is offered
  Language used in consultation
Pre-test counselling and consent
Reflexive monitoring
  Barriers to HIV testing
  Presence of relatives in consultation
Language barriers
Multiple problems to address in consultation
Changing the subject to HIV / phrases to use
Appointment time constraints
Lack of opportunity to test
Patient acceptability and agenda
Improvements to training
  Role play exercises and case examples
More information on managing positive results
Length of training
Follow-up training and email reminders
Primary care system changes (e.g. computer prompts, and universal screening)