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Table 2 Linear regression models of the association between GPs’ attitudes, demographic characteristics, interventions and first diagnosis

From: General practitioners’ attitudes towards early diagnosis of dementia: a cross-sectional survey

  Univariable model Multivariable model
Est 95% CI p value Est 95% CI p value
Enablers of early dementia diagnosis
 Demographics
  Age (per 10 years) − 0.07 − 0.12 − 0.03 0.001 − 0.08 − 0.12 − 0.03 0.001
  Sex (female vs. male) 0.13 0.05 0.21 0.002 0.10 0.00 0.20 0.055
  Workload (per 10 h per week) 0.00 − 0.03 0.02 0.777 0.00 − 0.03 0.02 0.786
  Consultations (per 5 per day) − 0.02 − 0.06 0.02 0.423 − 0.02 − 0.07 0.02 0.335
  Region (agglomeration vs. city) − 0.01 − 0.11 0.08 0.823 − 0.01 − 0.11 0.09 0.851
  Region (rural vs. city) 0.06 − 0.03 0.16 0.189 0.07 − 0.02 0.17 0.130
  Estimate of the percentage of patients over the age of 70 (per 10%) 0.00 − 0.02 0.02 0.785 0.00 − 0.02 0.02 0.840
  Language (French vs. German) − 0.09 − 0.19 0.01 0.080 − 0.08 − 0.18 0.03 0.145
  Language (Italian vs. German) 0.18 0.00 0.37 0.056 0.19 0.00 0.39 0.052
 Interventions
  Watchful waiting − 0.14 − 0.18 − 0.11 < 0.001 − 0.13 − 0.17 − 0.10 < 0.001
  Therapy with AChEI or memantine 0.14 0.11 0.17 < 0.001 0.14 0.11 0.18 < 0.001
  Prescription of Ginkgo biloba 0.04 0.01 0.07 0.012 0.04 0.01 0.07 0.009
  Minimize cardiovascular risk 0.07 0.03 0.10 < 0.001 0.07 0.04 0.10 < 0.001
  Memory training (groups) 0.10 0.07 0.13 < 0.001 0.10 0.07 0.13 < 0.001
  Counselling for family members 0.10 0.06 0.14 < 0.001 0.10 0.06 0.14 < 0.001
  Other therapies (music, painting, dancing, coaching) 0.09 0.06 0.12 < 0.001 0.09 0.06 0.13 < 0.001
  Prepare advance directives 0.10 0.07 0.13 < 0.001 0.10 0.07 0.13 < 0.001
  Test fitness to drive 0.10 0.07 0.13 < 0.001 0.10 0.07 0.13 < 0.001
  Counselling for the patient (e.g. AD association) 0.11 0.08 0.14 < 0.001 0.12 0.09 0.15 < 0.001
 Diagnosis         
  Average point of first diagnosis − 0.08 − 0.14 − 0.01 0.028 − 0.07 − 0.15 0.00 0.039
Barriers to early dementia diagnosis
 Demographics
  Age (per 10 years) − 0.07 − 0.11 − 0.02 0.005 − 0.06 − 0.11 − 0.02 0.007
  Sex (female vs. male) 0.15 0.07 0.24 0.001 0.13 0.03 0.24 0.010
  Workload (per 10 h per week) − 0.01 − 0.04 0.02 0.490 0.00 − 0.03 0.03 0.945
  Consultations (per 5 per day) 0.02 − 0.02 0.06 0.333 0.02 − 0.03 0.07 0.427
  Region (agglomeration vs. city) 0.09 − 0.01 0.19 0.079 0.05 − 0.05 0.15 0.320
  Region (rural vs. city) − 0.02 − 0.12 0.07 0.660 − 0.04 − 0.14 0.06 0.423
  Estimate of the percentage of patients over the age of 70 (per 10%) − 0.01 − 0.03 0.02 0.554 − 0.01 − 0.03 0.01 0.372
  Language (French vs. German) − 0.10 − 0.20 0.00 0.060 − 0.09 − 0.20 0.01 0.087
  Language (Italian vs. German) − 0.50 − 0.69 − 0.31 < 0.001 − 0.48 − 0.68 − 0.29 < 0.001
 Interventions
  Watchful waiting 0.05 0.02 0.09 0.003 0.05 0.01 0.09 0.007
  Therapy with AChEI or memantine − 0.01 − 0.05 0.02 0.401 − 0.02 − 0.05 0.02 0.408
  Prescription of ginkgo biloba 0.07 0.04 0.10 < 0.001 0.06 0.03 0.09 < 0.001
  Minimize cardiovascular risk 0.00 − 0.03 0.03 0.946 0.00 − 0.03 0.04 0.850
  Memory training (groups) − 0.02 − 0.05 0.01 0.110 − 0.03 − 0.06 0.01 0.103
  Counselling for family members − 0.05 − 0.09 − 0.02 0.006 − 0.06 − 0.09 − 0.02 0.006
  Other therapies (music, painting, dancing, coaching) − 0.03 − 0.06 0.01 0.116 − 0.03 − 0.06 0.00 0.089
  Prepare advance directives − 0.03 − 0.06 0.00 0.088 − 0.03 − 0.06 0.00 0.064
  Test fitness to drive − 0.05 − 0.09 − 0.02 0.001 − 0.06 − 0.10 − 0.03 < 0.001
  Counselling for the patient (e.g. AD association) 0.01 − 0.02 0.05 0.502 0.01 − 0.03 0.04 0.749
 Diagnosis         
  Average point of first diagnosis 0.06 − 0.01 0.13 0.078 0.07 − 0.01 0.14 0.073
  1. Est beta coefficient of linear regression, CI confidence interval
  2. For each unit increment of the independent variables (e.g. in the frequency of an intervention from 0 to 25% of cases or for each increment in the average moment of first diagnosis from MCI to mild dementia), the attitude of GPs changed by the indicated estimate on a scale ranging from 1 to 5. The multivariable models were adjusted for age, work (hours per week), practice location (city, agglomeration of the city, countryside), and the estimate of the percentage of patients over the age of 70