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Table 4 Multivariable negative binomial regression on healthcare utilization and cox proportional hazards regression on mortality in Year 2013 (k = 6)

From: Identifying heterogeneous health profiles of primary care utilizers and their differential healthcare utilization and mortality – a retrospective cohort study

Healthcare utilization or mortality a IRR, unless otherwise specified 95% Confidence interval p-value
Number of primary care outpatient clinic visits
 Class 1 1.00 Reference  
 Class 2 2.69 2.64–2.73 < 0.001
 Class 3 3.20 3.08–3.32 < 0.001
 Class 4 2.42 2.28–2.57 < 0.001
 Class 5 3.16 3.09–3.22 < 0.001
 Class 6 2.83 2.66–3.02 < 0.001
Number of outpatient specialist clinic visit
 Class 1 1.00 Reference  
 Class 2 1.67 1.62–1.74 < 0.001
 Class 3 3.33 3.07–3.62 < 0.001
 Class 4 2.60 2.28–2.98 < 0.001
 Class 5 1.68 1.60–1.76 < 0.001
 Class 6 6.60 5.75–7.56 < 0.001
Number of hospital admission
 Class 1 1.00 Reference  
 Class 2 1.75 1.64–1.86 < 0.001
 Class 3 8.05 7.14–9.07 < 0.001
 Class 4 4.79 3.93–5.83 < 0.001
 Class 5 2.20 2.03–2.38 < 0.001
 Class 6 19.68 16.41–23.61 < 0.001
Number of emergency department visits
 Class 1 1.00 Reference  
 Class 2 1.66 1.57–1.75 < 0.001
 Class 3 6.89 6.19–7.67 < 0.001
 Class 4 6.68 5.65–7.89 < 0.001
 Class 5 1.91 1.78–2.06 < 0.001
 Class 6 13.86 11.74–16.37 < 0.001
One-year all-cause mortality b
 Class 1 1.00 Reference  
 Class 2 2.81 2.59–3.04 < 0.001
 Class 3 14.57 13.25–16.01 < 0.001
 Class 4 7.03 5.86–8.42 < 0.001
 Class 5 4.43 4.05–4.83 < 0.001
 Class 6 27.97 25.01–31.29 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: IRR Incidence rate ratio (number of events divided by the person-time at risk)
  2. a– Class 1: Relatively Healthy; Class 2: Stable metabolic disease, Class 3: Metabolic disease with vascular complications, Class 4: High respiratory burden, Class 5: High Metabolic disease without complication, Class 6: Metabolic disease with end-organ failure
  3. b- Hazard ratio was reported
  4. Models are adjusted for age, gender, and ethnicity. Survival time was used as exposure variable for negative binomial regression