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Table 1 Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics and healthcare utilization of patients in Year 2012

From: Identifying heterogeneous health profiles of primary care utilizers and their differential healthcare utilization and mortality – a retrospective cohort study

Characteristics a Class 1
Relatively healthy
(n=58,213, 57.8%)
Class 2
Stable metabolic disease
(n=26,309, 26.1%)
Class 3
Metabolic disease with vascular complications
(n=2,964, 3.0%)
Class 4
High respiratory disease burden
(n=1,104, 1.1%)
Class 5
High metabolic disease without complication
(n=11,122, 11.0%)
Class 6
Metabolic disease with multi-organ complication
(n=1,035, 1.0%)
Overall
(n=100,747)
p-value
Age, (SD) 43.1 (15.0) 62.1 (12.2) 72.9 (11.1) 54.2 (19.4) 64.8 (11.5) 70.6 (13.3) 51.7 (17.4) <0.001
Gender
 Male, (%) 25,979 (44.6) 11,399 (43.3) 1,620 (54.7) 538 (48.7) 5,392 (48.5) 587 (56.7) 45,515 (45.2) <0.001
Race
 Chinese, (%) 42,890 (73.7) 22,596 (85.9) 2,468 (83.3) 687 (62.2) 8,971 (80.7) 802 (77.5) 78,414 (77.8) <0.001
 Malay, (%) 8.258 (14.2) 1,635 (6.2) 174 (5.9) 208 (18.8) 991 (8.9) 116 (11.2) 11,382 (11.3)  
 Indian, (%) 4,511 (7.8) 1,520 (5.8) 248 (8.4) 171 (15.5) 889 (8.0) 91 (8.8) 7,430 (7.4)  
 Others, (%) 2,554 (4.4) 558 (2.1) 74 (2.5) 38 (3.4) 271 (2.4) 26 (2.5) 3,521 (3.5)  
Social determinants of health
 Public rental housing, (%) 4,406 (7.6) 1,929 (7.3) 401 (13.5) 275 (24.9) 949 (8.5) 162 (15.7) 8,122 (8.1)  
Comorbidities
 Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (%) 451 (0.8) 4,981 (18.9) 1,592 (53.7) 175 (15.9) 11,122 (100) 654 (63.2) 18,975 (18.8) <0.001
 Hypertension, (%) 3,883 (6.7) 19,099 (72.6) 2,881 (97.2) 432 (39.1) 11,040 (99.3) 970 (93.7) 38,305 (38.0) <0.001
 Hyperlipidemia, (%) 2 (0.01) 23,427 (89.1) 2,809 (94.8) 334 (30.3) 11,060 (99.4) 865 (83.6) 38,497 (38.2) <0.001
 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with complication, (%) 23 (0.04) 0 (0) 103 (3.5) 5 (0.5) 1,586 (14.3) 205 (19.8) 1,922 (1.9) <0.001
 Chronic kidney disease stage 3 and 4, (%) 50 (0.1) 945 (3.6) 239 (8.1) 12 (1.1) 1,408 (12.7) 1,035 (100) 3,689 (3.7) <0.001
 Chronic kidney disease stage 5, end stage renal disease, (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 1,003 (96.9) 1,004 (1.0) <0.001
 Coronary artery disease, (%) 198 (0.3) 2,433 (9.3) 2,485 (83.8) 53 (4.8) 1,954 (17.6) 523 (50.5) 7,646 (7.6) <0.001
 Atrial fibrillation, (%) 45 (0.1) 99 (0.4) 514 (17.3) 20 (1.8) 1 (0.01) 139 (13.4) 818 (0.8) <0.001
 Heart failure, (%) 88 (0.2) 114 (0.4) 863 (29.1) 32 (2.9) 15 (0.1) 322 (31.1) 1,434 (1.4) <0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease, (%) 24 (0.04) 95 (0.4) 372 (12.6) 9 (0.8) 132 (1.2) 117 (11.3) 749 (0.7) <0.001
 Stroke, (%) 145 (0.3) 1,565 (6.0) 1,232 (41.6) 32 (2.9) 819 (7.4) 282 (27.3) 4,075 (4.0) <0.001
 Asthma, (%) 1,774 (3.1) 777 (3.0) 423 (14.3) 901 (81.6) 314 (2.8) 95 (9.2) 4,284 (4.3) <0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (%) 210 (0.4) 99 (0.4) 564 (19.0) 1,096 (99.3) 74 (0.7) 144 (13.9) 2,187 (2.2) <0.001
 Depression, (%) 1,112 (1.9) 713 (2.7) 195 (6.6) 79 (7.2) 64 (0.6) 79 (7.6) 2,242 (2.2) <0.001
 Dementia, (%) 17 (0.03) 91 (0.4) 135 (4.6) 5 (0.5) 56 (0.5) 49 (4.7) 353 (0.4) <0.001
 Anxiety, (%) 545 (0.9) 361 (1.4) 66 (2.2) 31 (2.8) 18 (0.2) 21 (2.0) 1,042 (1.0) <0.001
 Osteoarthritis, (%) 4,870 (8.4) 7,716 (29.3) 737 (24.9) 220 (19.9) 689 (6.2) 288 (27.8) 14,520 (14.4) <0.001
 Benign prostate hyperplasia, (%) 189 (0.3) 454 (1.7) 208 (7.0) 18 (1.6) 25 (0.2) 27 (2.6) 921 (0.9) <0.001
 Hyperthyroidism, (%) 526 (0.9) 442 (1.7) 33 (1.1) 18 (1.6) 19 (0.2) 6 (0.6) 1,044 (1.0) <0.001
 Hypothyroidism, (%) 453 (0.8) 1,127 (4.3) 98 (3.3) 29 (2.6) 87 (0.8) 27 (2.6) 1,821 (1.8) <0.001
 Malignancy, (%) 627 (1.1) 1,137 (4.3) 298 (10.1) 79 (7.2) 387 (3.5) 91 (8.8) 2,619 (2.6) <0.001
 Metastatic disease, (%) 90 (0.2) 168 (0.6) 56 (1.9) 11 (1.0) 12 (0.1) 11 (1.1) 348 (0.4) <0.001
Healthcare utilization in Year 2012
 Number of primary care outpatient clinic visits, (SD) 2.8 (4.0) 5.7 (3.8) 6.7 (5.7) 5.6 (10.3) 6.6 (4.5) 6.5 (8.7) 4.1 (4.6) <0.001
 Number of outpatient specialist clinic visit, (SD) 1.7 (4.3) 2.8 (6.0) 5.0 (7.8) 4.2 (8.6) 2.5 (5.4) 10.0 (12.5) 2.7 (5.4) <0.001
 Number of hospital admission, (SD) 0.1 (0.4) 0.1 (0.5) 0.5 (1.2) 0.4 (0.9) 0.1 (0.5) 1.2 (1.8) 0.1 (0.5) <0.001
 Number of emergency department visits, (SD) 0.1 (0.5) 0.1 (0.5) 0.2 (0.6) 0.6 (1.5) 0.2 (0.6) 1.2 (1.9) 0.2 (0.7) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation
  2. aKruskal Wallis test or ANOVA test was used to compare healthcare utilization between the 6 classes while Chi-Square test was used to compare the mortality data among the classes