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Table 6 Screening tools identified within studies

From: Family physicians perceived role in perinatal mental health: an integrative review

Study Screening instrument Timing
Buist et al. (2005) [28] The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) Postpartum.
Seehusen et al. (2005) [27] A standardised clinical interview (82%).
The Beck Depression Inventory (29%).
EPDS (10%).
Zung Depression Scale (8%).
Postpartum Depression Checklist (8%).
31% of family physicians (FPs) always screened for postpartum depression (PPD) at routine postpartum gynaecologic visits.
40% of FPs often screened for PPD at routine postpartum gynaecologic visits.
5.7% of FPs never screened for PPD at routine postpartum gynaecologic visits.
13% of FPs always screened for PPD at routine well child visits.
33% of FPs often screened for PPD at routine well child visits.
15.2% of FPs never screened for PPD at well child visits.
Buist et al. (2006) [29] The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS). Postpartum.
Chew-Graham et al. (2008) [30] Instinct or clinical intuition to alert GPs to the possibility of PPD. Intuitional use - “So I’m not saying I would actually look for it, but I am hoping my antennae would tell me if there was a problem” (GP, M5, P.171).
Leiferman et al. (2008) [19] Evidence of screening tool utilised by participants but screening tool not identified.
Use of screening tool: mean 2.40 (SD = 0.89).
Over 90% of family medicine physicians reported a willingness to implement a screening tool and to place a two-item tool on an intake form.
70.1% screened monthly/weekly/daily.
29.9% never/rarely assessed for maternal depression.
Chew-Graham et al. (2009) [31] Instinct or clinical intuition to alert GPs to the possibility of PPD. Intuitional use where a degree of suspicion is present.
Ververs et al. (2009) [22] None identified. N/A
Edge (2010) [32] GPs privileged intuition over instrumentation and did not routinely screen for PPD and appeared highly resistant to using validated psychiatric measures or screening tools such as the EPDS and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Infrequent based on intuition - “I am largely responsible for PHQ-9 being introduced…when it comes to my own type of practice, I very rarely get the PHQ-9 out and get people to tick boxes but I will take the questions from it and I will use those. So, umm, I would be lying if I said I used a formal structured questionnaire to get a clinical diagnosis, because I don’t” (GP1, P.19).
Bilszta et al. (2011) [23] None identified N/A
Kean et al. (2011) [34] None identified N/A
McCauley and Casson (2013) [33] None identified N/A
Santos et al. (2013) [36] No evidence of screening tools used by primary healthcare professionals within the study region. N/A
Glasser et al. (2016) [35] No screening tools identified within the study. However, 91.2% of family practitioners indicated they would be willing to use a brief questionnaire to identify the signs of PPD. N/A