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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Correlation between family physician’s direct advice and pneumococcal vaccination intention and behavior among the elderly in Japan: a cross-sectional study

   PPSV23 vaccinated group
(n = 142)
n (%) or Mean
PPSV23 unvaccinated group
(n = 67)
n (%) or Mean
Uncertain PPSV23 vaccine status group
(n = 153)
n (%) or Mean
Age (±S.E.)   77.6 ± 0.6 72.7 ± 1.0 74.2 ± 0.9
Sex Male 64 (45.1) 30 (44.8) 71 (46.4)
Female 78 (54.9) 37 (55.2) 82 (53.6)
Personal medical history of pneumonia Yes 5 (4.1) 6 (9.4) 8 (10.4)
No 118 (95.9) 58 (90.6) 69 (89.6)
Personal medical history of respiratory disease Yes 15 (12.6) 5 (7.8) 4 (5.0)
No 104 (87.4) 59 (92.2) 76 (95)
Family history of pneumonia Yes 10 (7.9) 8 (12.7) 10 (11.5)
No 116 (92.1) 55 (87.3) 77 (88.5)
Regular health check-ups* Yes 112 (95.7) 59 (98.3) 70 (87.5)
No 5 (4.3) 1 (1.7) 10 (12.5)
Current smoking habits Smoker 14 (10.4) 4 (6.3) 7 (7.4)
Non-smoker 120 (89.6) 60 (93.7) 87 (92.6)
Subjective state of health Good 37 (27.4) 23 (36.5) 33 (35.1)
Not good 98 (72.6) 40 (63.5) 61 (64.9)
Subjective sense of economic conditions Comfortable 17 (12.9) 2 (3.2) 6 (6.5)
Struggling 115 (87.1) 60 (96.8) 86 (93.5)
Highest level of education completed Elementary or junior high school 67 (50.4) 32 (51.6) 45 (48.9)
High school or higher 66 (49.6) 30 (48.4) 47 (51.1)
Living alone or with others With others 111 (92.5) 54 (87.1) 68 (94.4)
Alone 9 (7.5) 8 (12.9) 4 (5.6)
Necessity for transportation for clinic visits Necessary 42 (31.1) 14 (21.9) 31 (33.7)
Unnecessary 93 (68.9) 50 (78.1) 61 (66.3)
Perceived susceptibility to common colds ** Yes 43 (33.6) 10 (16.4) 27 (31.0)
No 85 (66.4) 51 (83.6) 69 (69.0)
Perceived susceptibility to pneumonia** Yes 17 (13.2) 3 (4.8) 18 (20.5)
No 112 (86.8) 59 (95.2) 70 (79.5)
Perceived severity of pneumonia** Yes 42 (34.4) 12 (18.8) 34 (40.0)
No 80 (65.6) 52 (81.2) 51 (60.0)
Perceived effectiveness of PPSV23 ** Yes 91 (75.2) 21 (33.3) 47 (56.6)
No 30 (24.8) 42 (66.7) 36 (43.4)
Perceived barriers to PPSV23 (sense of economic burden)** Yes 44 (35.5) 18 (30.5) 27 (35.1)
No 80 (64.5) 41 (69.5) 50 (64.9)
physician’s recommendation Yes 105 (78.9) 13 (20.3) 38 (58.5)
No 28 (21.1) 51 (79.7) 27 (41.5)
Awareness of PPSV23 Yes 120 (92.3) 28 (41.8) 69 (76.7)
No 10 (7.7) 39 (58.2) 21 (23.3)
Awareness of public subsidies Yes 37 (42.0) 8 (14.3) 18 (34.0)
No 51 (48.0) 48 (85.7) 35 (66.0)
Difficulty completing the questionnaire Completed with help. 30 (22.7) 13 (20.6) 13 (14.8)
Completed without help. 102 (77.3) 50 (79.4) 75 (85.2)
  1. *:Regardless of the frequency of health check-ups, if patients had regular medical check-ups within the last 5 years, the answers were put into the “Yes” category
  2. **:The responses on 5-point Likert scale were separated into the top 2 group and the lower 3 group
  3. The table shows demographic background of the participants and their responses for Health Belief Model related questions. Uncertain PPSV23 vaccine status group was defined by the participants whose reports of PPSV23 vaccination status in the questionnaire and PPSV23 vaccination records in electronic medical record were not consistent