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Table 2 Odds Ratios and 95% CI for Predicting Continuity of Care

From: Interpersonal continuity of primary care of veterans with diabetes: a cohort study using electronic health record data

Effect and Level Odds Ratio 95% CI P-Value
Patient-level factors
 Male 1.14 (1.05,1.23) 0.002
Age Group
 Less Than 40 Reference Reference  
 40 to Less Than 65 1.23 (1.16,1.30) <.001
 65 to Less Than 80 1.30 (1.23,1.38) <.001
 0 and Up 1.35 (1.27,1.44) <.001
Race
 White Reference Reference  
 American Indian 0.98 (0.91,1.05) 0.549
 Asian 0.95 (0.88,1.04) 0.266
 Black 1.02 (0.99,1.04) 0.124
 Native Hawaiian 1.00 (0.95,1.06) 0.956
 Unknown or Missing 1.02 (0.99,1.04) 0.188
 Hispanic 0.96 (0.93,0.99) 0.011
Marital Status
 Currently Married Reference Reference  
 Never Married 0.98 (0.96,1.00) 0.038
 Previously Married 0.97 (0.96,0.98) <.001
 Unknown Marital Status 0.98 (0.90,1.08) 0.687
 Homeless at Any Time During Year 0.79 (0.75,0.83) <.001
Copay Status
 Must Pay Copay Reference Reference  
 No Copay Due to Disability 0.98 (0.96,0.99) 0.010
 No Copay Due to Low Income 0.95 (0.94,0.97) <.001
 Copay Status Unknown 0.93 (0.88,0.99) 0.013
Mental Health Diagnoses
 Mood Disorder 0.97 (0.95,0.98) <.001
 Substance Abuse 0.94 (0.92,0.96) <.001
 PTSD 0.99 (0.97,1.01) 0.399
 Dementia 0.94 (0.90,0.97) <.001
 Other Mental Health Diagnosis 0.99 (0.96,1.02) 0.650
Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) Score Category
 Less Than or Equal to 0.5 Reference Reference  
 Greater Than 0.5 to 1 0.95 (0.93,0.97) <.001
 Greater Than 1 to 1.5 0.93 (0.91,0.95) <.001
 Greater Than 1.5 to 2 0.91 (0.89,0.94) <.001
 Greater Than 2 0.89 (0.86,0.91) <.001
Distance From VHA Primary Care Clinic
 Less Than 5 Miles Reference Reference  
 5 to Less Than 25 Miles 0.97 (0.95,0.99) 0.001
 25 to Less Than 50 Miles 0.85 (0.83,0.88) <.001
 50 Miles or Greater 0.62 (0.59,0.65) <.001
 Missing 1.15 (1.01,1.30) 0.034
Baseline BMI
 Less Than 18.5 Reference Reference  
  18.5 to Less Than 25 0.97 (0.86,1.09) 0.611
  25 to Less Than 30 0.98 (0.87,1.10) 0.723
  30 to Less Than 35 0.97 (0.86,1.09) 0.600
  Greater Than or Equal to 35 0.97 (0.86,1.09) 0.599
Number of PC Visits in FY12
  1 Visit Reference Reference  
  2 Visits 1.78 (1.72,1.85) <.001
  3 Visits 1.25 (1.21,1.30) <.001
  4 or More Visits 1.23 (1.18,1.29) <.001
 Patient Had Same Zip Code 2.20 (2.12,2.28) <.001
Provider-level factors
 Assigned Provider Type in FY12a
  Physician Reference Reference  
  Nurse Practitioner 0.87 (0.78,0.97) 0.011
  Physician Assistant 0.86 (0.73,1.02) 0.081
  Physician Resident 0.18 (0.15,0.21) <.001
 Provider Turnover 0.09 (0.07,0.11) <.001
Facility-level factors
 Presence of Endocrinology at Facilityb 1.06 (0.89,1.25) 0.514
Rural Urban Commuting Area Status
  Metropolitan Area Core Reference Reference  
  Other Metropolitan Area 1.07 (0.89,1.28) 0.467
  Micropolitan 0.98 (0.82,1.16) 0.778
  Small Town or Rural 0.81 (0.59,1.11) 0.193
State-level factors
 Percent of Primary Care Physicians Who Work With NPs/PA
  Lowest Tertile Reference Reference  
  Middle Tertile 0.88 (0.72,1.07) 0.204
  Highest Tertile 0.95 (0.74,1.22) 0.684
 Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice Regulations
  Least Restrictive Reference Reference  
  Moderately Restrictive 0.92 (0.71,1.20) 0.545
  Most Restrictive 0.79 (0.64,0.97) 0.027
 Physician Assistant Scope of Practice Regulations
  Least Restrictive Reference Reference  
  Moderately Restrictive 1.06 (0.83,1.36) 0.629
  Most Restrictive 1.17 (0.93,1.46) 0.183
Visn-level factors
 Region
  Northeast Reference Reference  
  West 0.85 (0.69,1.03) 0.100
  Midwest 1.34 (1.06,1.70) 0.016
  South 0.87 (0.73,1.04) 0.127
  1. Data for patient-level variables are from the Veterans Administration electronic health record files. Other data sources are described in the Methods section
  2. aPrimary care provider (PCP) is assigned as the physician, NP, or PA seen most during FY 2012 and 2013
  3. bEndocrinology referral capacity is defined as either present (endocrinology or other diabetes mellitus specialty clinics provided 500 or more visits to cohort patients in FY12) or absent (fewer than 500 visits to cohort patients)