Skip to main content

Table 2 Associations of prevalence of pain for all participants, for participants with MMSE > 25, for participants ≤25 and impairment in daily living for all participants

From: Prevalence of pain and its associated factors among the oldest-olds in different care settings – results of the AgeQualiDe study

Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Gender
 Female - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Male 0.61 0.45–0.84 <.01 0.61 0.44–0.84 <.01 0.21 0.05–0.93 0.04 0.59 0.43–0.81 <.01
Age
 <=89 - - - - - - - - - - - -
 > = 90 0.65 0.48–0.88 <.01 0.61 0.44–0.84 <.01 2.17 0.50–9.36 0.30 0.88 0.65–1.19 0.41
Education
 Primary - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Secondary 0.75 0.54–1.02 0.07 0.73 0.52–1.01 0.06 4.83 0.71–32.94 0.11 0.76 0.56–1.05 0.09
 Tertiary 1.12 0.73–1.71 0.60 1.18 0.76–1.83 0.47 1.31 0.17–10.40 0.79 0.97 0.63–1.48 0.88
Housing
 Living at homea - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Living at homeb 1.60 1.01–2.53 0.04 1.70 1.04–2.78 0.04 1.44 0.30–6.90 0.65 1.72 1.08–2.74 0.02
 Assisted living 0.71 0.38–1.31 0.27 0.90 0.47–1.71 0.75 <.01 <.001 0.96 0.61 0.33–1.13 0.12
 Care home 0.68 0.37–1.24 0.21 0.78 0.39–1.57 0.48 0.08 0.01–0.48 <.01 0.51 0.28–0.93 0.03
Use of Analgesicsc 2.17 1.48–3.16 <.01 2.13 1.42–3.18 <.01 2.62 0.49–13.98 2.62 2.75 1.88–4.03 <.01
BMI
 Adiposity 1.14 0.71–1.84 0.60 1.17 0.71–1.92 0.53 0.24 0.02–2.81 0.25 1.48 0.92–2.39 0.11
 Overweight 1.21 0.89–1.65 0.22 1.19 0.86–1.63 0.30 3.14 0.71–13.99 0.13 1.37 1.01–1.86 0.05
 Normal weight - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Underweight 0.74 0.29–1.91 0.53 0.55 0.20–1.53 0.25 2.88 0.07–114.06 0.57 1.36 0.05–3.48 0.52
Barthel Indexd 0.99 0.98–1.01 0.19 0.99 0.98–1.01 0.30 1.01 0.96–1.07 0.64 0.99 0.98–1.01 0.27
Depressive symptomse 1.15 1.08–1.22 <.01 1.14 1.07–1.22 <.01 1.42 1.01–1.99 0.04 1.14 1.07–1.21 <.01
MMSEf 0.60 0.35–1.03 0.06 - - - - - - 0.69 0.41–1.17 0.17
  1. Notes: OR Odds Ratio, Alpha was set to 0.05
  2. aParticipants without care support
  3. bParticipants with care support
  4. cuse of analgesics: dichotomized
  5. dBarthel Index: score 0–100
  6. eGDS score 0–15
  7. fMMSE: score 0–30, cut-off ≤25 for mild cognitive impairment, > 25 no cognitive impairment