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Table 1 Sample of Descriptives and Demography

From: Prevalence of pain and its associated factors among the oldest-olds in different care settings – results of the AgeQualiDe study

  All N (%) No Pain N (%) Mild Pain N (%) Moderate Pain N(%) Severe Pain N(%) Pearson □2
Participants (N) 738 273 (37.0) 195 (26.4) 191 (25.9) 79 (10.7)  
Gender 2 [3]= 19.47 p = <.001
 Male 240 (32.5) 102 (37.4) 77 (39.5) 42 (22.0) 19 (24.1)
 Female 498 (67.5) 171 (62.6) 118 (60.5) 149 (78.0) 60 (75.9)
Age (y), M (SD) 88.8 (3.0)     2 [3] = 9.18 p = .027
 ≤ 89 476 (64.5) 163 (59.7) 134 (68.7) 119 (62.3) 60 (75.9)
 ≥ 90 262 (35.5) 110 (40.3) 61 (31.3) 72 (37.7) 19 (24.1)
Education 2 [6] =27.17 p = <.001
 Primary 408 (55.3) 151 (55.3) 90 (46.2) 117 (61.3) 50 (63.3)
 Secondary 226 (30.6) 91 (3.3) 59 (30.2) 59 (30.9) 17 (21.5)
 Tertiary 104 (14.1) 31 (11.4) 46 (23.6) 15 (7.8) 12 (15.2)
Housing 2 [9] = 1.89 p = <.001
 At homea 520 (70.5) 199 (72.9) 153 (78.5) 118 (61.8) 50 (63.3)
 At homeb 105 (14.2) 26 (9.5) 18 (9.2) 41 (21.5) 20 (25.3)
 Assisted living 65 (8.8) 22 (8.1) 11 (5.6) 10 (5.2) 5 (6.3)
 Care home 48 (6.5) 26 (9.5) 13 (6.7) 22 (11.5) 4 (5.1)
Analgesics* 2 [3] = 5.01 p = <.001
 Yes 181 (24.5) 33 (12.1) 42 (21.5) 73 (38.2) 33 (41.8)
 No 546 (74.0) 234 (89.0) 151 (77.4) 115 (60.2) 46 (58.2)
BMI, M (SD)* 25.2 (3.8)     2 [9] = 8.96 p = .441
 Normal weight 340 (49.1) 129 (47.3) 95 (48.7) 83 (43.5) 33 (41.7)
 Underweight 17 (2.5) 9 (3.3) 3 (1.5) 2 (1.0) 3 (3.8)
 Overweight 265 (38.3) 88 (32.2) 69 (35.4) 79 (41.4) 29 (36.7)
 Obese 70 (10.1) 23 (8.4) 18 (9.2) 18 (9.4) 11 (13.9)
MMSE 2 [3] = 8.30 p = .040
 <  25 79 (10.7) 38 (13.9) 16 (8.2) 22 (11.5) 3 (3.8)
 ≥ 25 659 (89.3) 235 (86.1) 179 (91.8) 169 (88.5) 76 (96.2)
Impairment in daily activities* 2 [15] = 521.90 p = <.001
 None 229 (31.0) 181 (66.3) 42 (21.5) 6 (3.1) 0 (0.0)
 Mild 215 (29.1) 65 (23.8) 91 (46.6) 47 (24.6) 12 (15.2)
 Medium 158 (21.4) 24 (8.8) 50 (25.6) 73 (38.2) 11 (13.9)
 Moderate 113 (15.3) 3 (1.1) 10 (5.1) 62 (32.5) 38 (48.1)
 Extreme 21 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.5) 3 (1.6) 17 (21.5)
  1. Notes:
  2. M mean
  3. SD standard deviation
  4. Data are presented as number (%)
  5. Alpha was set to 0.05
  6. *Due to missing values not all sums add up to 100%.
  7. aParticipants without care support.
  8. bParticipants with care support