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Table 1 Brief description of the included studies

From: Prevalence, aetiologies and prognosis of the symptom dizziness in primary care – a systematic review

Studies Time of recruitment Country Setting Number of dizzy patients Mean Age of study sample (range) Female (%) Data collection Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Answered research questionsb
BEACH 2014 [18] 04/2013 - 03/2014 Australia 959 general practitioners 993 n.r. n.r. prospective all patients contacts ICPC: Reason for encounter vertigo/ dizziness   1
Bird 1998 [39] 08/1993 - 071995 Great Britain 3 general practices 503 median 58 (3-99) n.r. retrospective complaining of symptoms allied to dizziness ➔ stratified sample was studied in more detail patients had seen their GP about the same problem within the past 12 months 1,2
CONTENT 2007 [1] 04/2005 - 12/2006 Germany 17 general practices 607 n.r. 70.8a prospective all patients contacts ICPC: Reason for encounter N17 – vertigo/ dizziness   1
DNSGP-2 2010 [15] 01/2001 - 12/2001 Netherlands 96 family practices 3990 76.1 (SEM 0.11) (65+) 65.9 prospective database with presented symptoms recorded as freetext: Dutch synonyms for dizziness   1,2
Ekvall 2004 [16] 1998 and 2000 Sweden 2 health care centres (14 GPs) 311 range 12-94 74.9a retrospective ICD9/10: 780.4 / R 42 and 386 / H81   1
Ekvall 2005 [3] 01/2003 - 12/2003 Sweden 6 primary health care centres prev: 197 aet: 38 prev: range 65-99 aet: Median 83 (65-94) prev: 70.1a aet: 65.8a prev: retrospective aet: prospective prev: 65 years or older diagnosis R42 (ICD 10) aet: study participants; ICD 10 Code R 42   1,2
Fink 2007 [40] 10/1989 - 09/1999 Austria 1 general practitioner 408a n.r. n.r. prospective all Episodes of Cares: dizziness as reason for encounter   1
Garrigues 2008 [41] 11/2003 - 11/2004 Spain 6 primary care centres 191 55.8 (SD 17.6) (range 10+) 68.6 prospective vertigo crisis (illusion of unequivocal rotary movement) under 10 years 1
Gerber 1992 [42] 15 months USA general internal medicine group practice (4 general internists) 46 range 18+ n.r. prospective all physical complaints reported complaint of dizziness   1
Hanley 2002 [43] 10/1999 - 03/2000 Ireland 13 general practitioners 70 n.r. n.r. prospective vertigo (do you see the world spin around you as if you had got off a playground roundabout)   2
Harding 1980 [44] n.r. Colombia, India, Sudan, Philippines primary health facilities 90 range 16+ n.r. prospective reason for encounter of all patients aged 16 or older: dizziness so seriously ill or required such urgent medical care that it would be unreasonable to administer the research questionnaires pat. Who refused to take part pat. Who had already attended once 1
Hopkins 1989 [45] 1981 - 1982 Great Britain 48 general practices (143 doctors) n.r. n.r. n.r. unclear patients consulting for ICD 9: 780.4 and 386   1
Jayarajan 2003 [14] 08/2000 - 07/2001 Great Britain 53 general practitioners 62,6 average (3318) range 5+ 5-20: 1.3% 20-40: 13.5% 40-60: 24.7% 60-80: 40.5% > 80: 20% n.r. retrospective dizziness   1
Kroenke 1989 [25] 08/1984 – 07/1987 USA Internal Medicine clinic at Brooke Army Medical Center (primary care) 55 n.r. n.r. retrospective dizziness (new complaint or recurrent complaint that prompted a new diagnostic workup) chronic dizziness 1,2,3
Kroenke 1998 [26] n.r. USA Walter Reed Army Medical Center general medicine walk-in clinic 30 adults n.r. prospective adult outpatients presenting with physical complaints (excl. Upper respiratory infection) dizziness   3
Kwong 2005 [4] 02/2001 – 01/2003 Canada 1 family practice center 50 range 65-91 < 80: 38% > = 80 62% 58 retrospective ICD 9 code of “780” (dizziness) 65 years of age or older random sample of eligible charts Patients who are discharged from service or died 2
Lawson 1999 [35] a 3 month period Great Britain general practitioners from 4 practices 50 74 (61-78) 74a prospective patients presenting with dizziness more than 60 years of age   1,2
Maarsingh 2010 [23, 36] 06/2006 - 01/2008 Netherlands 45 family physicians in 24 family practices 417 78.5 (65-95) 74 prospective dizziness being present for at least 2 weeks main reason for consultation 65 years or older inability to speak Dutch or English, severe cognitive impairment, severe visual impairment (i.e. corrected visual acuity of less than 3/60 for the best eye), severe hearing impairment (i.e. verbal communication impossible), wheelchair dependency 2,3
Mash 2012 [46] n.r. South Africa 240 health workers (nurses saw 86,1% of the patients) in mobile clinics, fixed clinics and community health centres 299 n.r. n.r. prospective all patients contacts ICPC: Reason for encounter N17 – vertigo/ dizziness   1
MedViP 2008 [47] 04/2001 - 12/2002 Germany 138 primary care practices 10,871 59 67.2 retrospective ICD 10 Codes (H81, H82, A88, R42) dizziness medication synonyms for dizziness diagnoses   1,2
Morrell 1972 [48, 49] 1 year Great Britain 1 general practice (3 doctors) 74 0-4: 1.4a % 5-14: 10.8a % 15-24: 17.6a % 25-44: 21.6a % 45-64: 25.7a % > 65: 23.0a % 70.3a prospective patients with a new symptom (which had not been presented to any doctor in the previous 12 months) disturbance of balance   1,2
NAMCS 1989 [50] 1981 and 1985 USA family physicians, general practitioners and general internists 531 61.3 (25+) 66.7 prospective all patients contacts Reason for encounter: S225.0 vertigo – dizziness   1
PCD 1994 [27, 51] 01-06 and 08-10 1991 USA 4 family group practices, 1 internal medicine group practice, 1 university family practice center, 1 solo general internist, 1 solo family physician, 1 county hospital emergency department 142 58.6 (17-90) > 60: 59.2% < 60: 40.8% 71.8 prospective dizziness as chief complaint or part of a symptom complex that represented the principal reason for visit at least 18 years   2,3
Rieger 2014 [52] 01/2008 - 12/2008 Germany general practitioners 489598a range 18-74 n.r. retrospective ICD H81, H82, R42, A88.1, E53.8, F45.8, G11.8, G43.1, G45.0-, G62, G63, G90.3, H55, H83.0– 2, I95.1, N95.1 and R26 without R26.1   1
Sicras 2007 [17] 2006 Spain 5 primary health care centers 6504 n.r. n.r. retrospective ICPC diagnosis N17 vertigo/ dizziness   1
Sczepanek 2011 [24] n.r. Germany 21 primary care practices 69 76.19 (SD 6.64) (range 65-95) 69.6 prospective incident dizziness (less than six months) as main reason for encounter age at least 65 years insufficient command of the German language, dementia, terminal diseases 2,3
Transition Project 2012 [53] 1995 - 2005 Netherlands, Malta, Serbia 59 general practices (69 doctors) n.r. n.r. n.r. prospective all patients contacts ICPC: Reason for encounter N17 – vertigo/ dizziness   1
Wun 2000 [19] 12/1997 - 03/1998 China 28 commune clinics = general practice clinics (42 primary care doctors) 1331 60.8 (SD 13.5) n.r. prospective all patients contacts ICPC: Reason for encounter N17 – vertigo/ dizziness   1
Yardley 1998 [22] n.r. Great Britain 10 general practices aet: 143 prog: 76 aet: 59.8a(18+) prog: 59.6a aet: 80.4a prog: 82.9a aet: retrospective prog: prospective study participants 18 years and older with a complaint of dizziness patient still symptomatic non-vestibular cause for dizziness performance of vigorous head or body movements during exercise therapy was contraindicated multiple, life-threatening or progessive central disorders 2,3
Yardley 2004 [21] 2001 - 2002 Great Britain 20 general practices aet: 170 prog: 87 aet: 61.9a(18+) prog: 61.0 SD 14.42 aet: 71 prog: 71 aet: retrospective prog: prospective study participants 18 years and older with a complaint of dizziness Patients no longer found to be dizzy duration of dizziness less than 2 months during the past 2 years nonlabyrinthine cause of dizziness in patient records, none of the rehabilitation exercises provoked dizziness, medical contraindications for making required head movements serious comorbid conditions 2,3
Yardley 2012 [20] 10/2008 - 07/2009 Great Britain 35 general practices 112 58.2 (18 +) 75 prospective study participants 18 years and older with a complaint of dizziness during the past two years patients who were no longer dizzy, non vestibular causes of dizziness, dizziness was not aggravated by rapid head movements, contraindications to treatment by vestiublar rehabilitation inability to speak English 3
  1. aData not directly available in publication, but could be calculated
  2. bFirst research question: Prevalence of the consulting reason dizziness at general practice
  3. Second research question: Aetiology of the consulting reason dizziness at general practice
  4. Third research question: Prognosis of the consulting reason dizziness at general practice
  5. n.r Not reported, prev Prevalence, aet Aetiology, prog Prognosis, BEACH Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health, CONTENT CONTinuous morbidity registration Epidemiologic NeTwork, DNSGP-2 Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, MedViP Medizinische Versorgung in der Praxis, NAMCS National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, PCD Primary Care Dizziness Study
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