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Table 2 Number of Chronic Care Model elements (primary only, n = 1; primary and secondary, n = 2; or primary, secondary and tertiary, n = 3) by primary outcome

From: A systematic review of chronic disease management interventions in primary care

OUTCOME CATEGORY
  Professional-level Patient-level Other
Number of CCM elements Adherence to guidelines Change in medication Quality of care Adherence to treatment Service use PMOD Risk behavior Quality of life Health status Satisfaction Functional status Knowledge level Costs
1 2 (4) 5 (10)   1 (5) 3 (9) 11 (23) 4 (5) 7 (13) 6 (9) 1 (2) 3 (7) 7 (9) 1 (2)
2 12 (17) 12 (15) 1 (1) 7 (12) 5 (11) 34 (55) 9 (16) 8 (18) 2 (12) 4 (6) 9 (15) 11 (15) 4 (5)
3 5 (11) 5 (5)   1 (5) 4 (6) 20 (30) 0 (7) 2 (12) 2 (10) 4 (6) 0 (3) 3 (6) 4 (4)
  1. Numbers in cells: number of studies reporting at least one significant outcome (number of studies reporting at least one outcome for that particular category of outcome measure)
  2. Bold font in cells is where 50% or more of studies reported a significant difference for that category of outcome
  3. CCM Chronic Care Model, PMOD physiological measure of disease