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Table 4 Signs and symptoms to discuss during history taking and to help signalling cognitive impairment [21]

From: How to choose the most appropriate cognitive test to evaluate cognitive complaints in primary care

Memory impairment  
 • Repeating questions or conversations
 • Hesitations, inconsistencies, omissions or confabulations
 • Head turning sign (to verify answers with a caregiver)
 • Misplacing personal belongings
 • Forgetting events or appointments
 • Getting lost on a familiar route
 • Difficulty thinking of common words while speaking or using incorrect words
 • No fluent production of words
 • Difficulties in performing or imitating simple tasks (such as combing hair or brushing teeth) with intact comprehension, motor skills and perception  
 • Impaired ability to recognise faces or common objects or to find objects in direct view despite good acuity (visual agnosia)
 • Impaired ability to recognise or identify objects by touch alone (tactile agnosia)
Disturbance in executive functioning  
 • Not correcting mistakes
 • Difficulty learning how to use a new gadget or machine around the house
 • Inability to manage finances
 • Loss of abstract thinking, logical reasoning and/or visuoconstruction (e.g. drawing a clock)
 • Lack of insight in own functioning
 • Loss of initiative, increased impulsivity or uninhibited behaviour