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Table 1 Sample characteristics, by status (non-frequent attenders vs. frequent attenders) (n = 7,446)

From: Association of general psychological factors with frequent attendance in primary care: a population-based cross-sectional observational study

Variables Non-frequent attenders
(n = 6,700)
Frequent attenders
(n = 746)
p-value Missings (%)
Female (Ref.: Male): N (%) 3,385 (50.5) 399 (53.5) ns 0.0
Age in years: Mean (SD); Range 64.1 (11.2); 40–95 67.8 (11.3); 40–93 <.001 0.0
Employment status: N (%)    <.001 0.0
Working 2,576 (38.5) 150 (20.1)   
Retired 3,549 (53.0) 505 (67.7)   
Not employed 572 (8.5) 91 (12.2)   
Married, living together with spouse (Ref.: Others): N (%) 4,745 (70.9) 460 (62.0) <.001 0.2
Monthly net equivalence income in Euro: Mean (SD); Range 1,976.2 (1,415.1); 80–33,333.3 1,579.9 (828.3); 122.0–7,018.0 <.001 5.3
East Germany (Ref.: West Germany): N (%) 2,238 (33.4) 228 (30.6) ns 0.0
Sports at least once a week (Ref.: Sports less than once a week): N (%) 3,693 (55.1) 331 (44.4) <.001 0.0
Body-Mass-Index (BMI): Mean (SD); Range 26.7 (4.4); 13.2–55.8 28.5 (5.5); 16.4–60.9 <.001 1.7
Current smoker (Ref.: No): N (%) 1,178 (17.7) 122 (16.5) ns 0.8
Daily alcohol consumption (Ref.: Less than daily alcohol consumption): N (%) 818 (12.2) 70 (9.4) <.05 0.2
Number of physical illnesses: Mean (SD); Range 2.5 (1.8); 0–11 4.0 (2.0); 0–11 <.001 1.5
Life satisfaction (Pavot/Diener 1993): Mean (SD); Range 3.8 (0.7); 1–5 3.5 (0.9); 1–5 <.001 0.9
Positive affect (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988): Mean (SD); Range 3.6 (0.5); 1–5 3.4 (0.5); 1.4–5 <.001 0.9
Negative affect (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988): Mean (SD); Range 2.1 (0.5); 1–5 2.2 (0.6); 1–4.6 <.001 0.9
Optimism (Brandstädter & Wentura, 1994): Mean (SD); Range 3.0 (0.5); 1–4 2.8 (0.6); 1–4 <.001 0.3
Self-efficacy (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1999): Mean (SD); Range 3.1 (0.4); 1–4 2.9 (0.5); 1-4 <.001 0.4
Self-esteem (Rosenberg 1965): Mean (SD); Range 3.4 (0.4); 1.4–4 3.3 (0.5); 1.2–4 <.001 0.1
Self-regulation (Freund & Baltes, 2002): Mean (SD); Range 4.0 (0.5); 2-5 3.9 (0.5); 2–5 <.01 2.0
Perceived stress (Cohen et al., 1983): Mean (SD); Range 2.3 (0.6); 1–5 2.6 (0.7); 1–4.8 <.001 1.5
  1. ns not significant, N number, SD standard deviation; Comparisons between the two groups were done using t-test and chi-square procedures