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Table 2 Overview of the studies included in the review

From: Are interventions to increase the uptake of screening for cardiovascular disease risk factors effective? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Study (Author, year, country) Population Type of screening Setting Intervention Related CVR Outcome measures for uptake rate
Randomized/cluster randomized controlled trials
 McDowell, 1989
Canada [47]
Adults aged ≥18 yearsa BP Primary care practice 3 intervention groups:
1. Physician reminder (computer-based reminder)
2. Patient reminder (telephone)
3. Patient reminder (letter)
Control: usual care
BP
 Robson, 1989
UK [50]
Patients aged 30–64 yearsa Multiple screening Primary care practice Dedicated personnel: health promotion nurse
Control: doctor worked alone
BP, smoking history, cholesterol, family history of heart attack
 Ornstein, 1991
USA [48]
Patients aged ≥18 yearsa Multiple screening Primary care practice 3 intervention groups:
1. Physician reminder (paper based)
2. patient reminder (letter)
3. physician and patient reminder (multifaceted approach)
Control: usual care
Cholesterol
 Apkon, 2005
USA [51]
Patients aged ≥18 yearsa Multiple screening Primary care practice Physician reminders (computer based) vs. usual care Lipid, smoking screening
 Kenealy, 2005
New Zealand [37]
Adults aged 50 years or oldera Diabetes screening Primary care practice 3 intervention arms:
1. Physician reminder (flash alert in computer screen)
2. Physician reminder (patient giving the completed diabetes risk self-assessment form to the doctor)
3. Both 1 & 2 (multifaceted approach)
Control: usual care
Glucoseb
 Harari, 2008
UK [52]
Adults aged ≥65 yearsa Multiple screening Primary care practice Health Risk Appraisal via mailed questionnaire and feedback to participants and general practitioners (multifaceted approach) vs. usual care BP, cholesterol, blood glucose
 van Wyk, 2008
Netherland [49]
Men aged 18 to 70 years and women aged 18 to 75 yearsa cholesterol Primary care practice 2 intervention for physician reminder (computer based) vs. usual care:
1. Auto-alert
2. On demand alert
Cholesterol
 Holt, 2010
UK [60]
patients aged 50–74 years identified as probable high-risk CVRs Primary care practice Physicians reminder (computer based screen alerts vs. usual care Overall CVRs
 Stocks, 2012
Australia [58]
Patients aged 40–74 years CVRs Primary care practice Financial incentives (added voucher incentives) vs. usual care (free test) Overall CVRs
 Grunfeld, 2013
Canada [27]
Adults aged 40–65 years Multiple screening Primary care practice 3 intervention arms:
1. Dedicated personnel (practice facilitator at practice level)
2. Dedicated personnel (prevention practitioner at patient level)
3. Multifaceted approach (both 1&2)
control: usual care
FBS, BP, Framingham risk calculated, BMI, waist circumference, smoking, physical activity, nutritionb
Non-randomized trials with controlled group
 Fullard, 1987
UK [53]
Patients aged 35–64 yearsa CVRs Primary care practice Multifaceted approach (practice facilitator with a practice prevention nurse) vs. usual care Weight, BP, and smoking history
 Franks, 1991
USA [62]
Patients aged ≥18 yearsa cholesterol Primary care practice Financial incentives:
Free vs. usual care (paid)
Cholesterol
 Christensen, 1995
Denmark [59]
Men aged 40-49 CVRs Primary care practice Financial incentives:
Free vs. paid
Overall CVRS
 Toth-Pal, 2004
Sweden [54]
Adults aged ≥70 years Multiple screening Primary care practice Physician reminder (computer-based) vs. usual care BP, diabetes
 Frank, 2004
Australia [55]
Eligible adults fulfilled screeninga Multiple screening Primary care practice Physician reminder (computer-based) vs. usual care Weight, smoking status, BP, diabetes, lipid
 Marshall, 2008
UK [61]
patients aged 35–74 years identified as probable high-risk CVRs Primary care practice Dedicated personnel (project nurse) vs. usual care Overall CVRs
Pre- and Post- studies
 Vincent, 1995
USA [64]
Adult populationa Multiple screening Primary care practice multifaceted approach: computer generated worksheet with a reminder on health maintenance procedure, periodic physician performance report, patients reminder (letter invitation) Cholesterol
 Bailie, 2003
Australia [56]
≥50 years (majority indigenous) Multiple screening Primary care practice multifaceted approach: clinical guidelines, computerised reminder systems, audit and feedback Weight, BP, waistcircumference, BMI, glucose
 Sinclair, 2006
New Zealand [63]
Adults eligible for cardiovascular risk screeninga CVRs Primary care practice Multifaceted approach:
1) practice management software enhancement (alert to identify eligible patients for screening, electronic cardiovascular risk assessment tool)
2) CME for the clinical champion who oversee the project
3) Provision of relevant reporting and feedback
4) Eligible patients: letter invitation
Completed cardiovascular risk screen (5-year absolute cardiovascular risk)
 wee, 2013
Singapore [33]
Adults aged ≥40 years CVRs community Multifaceted approach: free screening and convenient screening at housing estate BP, fasting blood glucose and lipid
 Butala, 2013
USA [57]
adultsa Multiple screening Primary care practice Physician reminders (paper-based notes for recommended preventive services) Lipid and glucose
  1. BP blood pressure, CVRS uptake for cardiovascular risk factors as a whole
  2. amixed population which consisted of those with known and unknown CVD
  3. bresults provided by the corresponding author