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Table 1 Study characteristics of the included studies

From: Effectiveness of medication review: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author (Year) Risk of bias Foll-ow up (mos.) Country and setting Mean age (IG), years No. Pts. Description intervention Patient selection criteria for medication review
HCP involvement
R: Medication review
D: Decision about clinical relevancy
Patient Involve-ment Nr assess-ments/nr patient contacts Additional
Education
HCP
Age, years Nr drugs Other
Bond [38] (2007) LRB 12 GB, general practices Nr 2014 R: Pharmacist
D: GP
No 1 Yes < 65 a No Specific conditionsa
Briggs [73] (2015) HRB 4 AU, tertiary referral hospital 82.0 2015 R: Hospital pharmacist
D: GP
Yes 1 Nr >70a >5a Living at homea
Britton [51] (1991) HRB 3 US, general medicine clinic Nr 760 R: Clinical pharmacist
D: physician (assistant)
No 1 Yes No > 5 No
Burns [32]/Furniss [42] (2000) HRB 4 GB, nursing homes 83.5 330 R: (study) pharmacist
D: multidisciplinary team
No 2 Nr No No Living in nursing home
Gallagher [49] (2011) LRB 6 GB, tertiary medical centre 74.5 400 R: (research) physician, medical team
D: physician
No 1 Nr ≥ 65a No Emergency admissiona
Graffen [74] (2004) HRB 6 AU, general practices Nr 402 R: Pharmacist
D: GP and patient
Yes 1 Nr > 65a ≥ 5a Living independentlya; ≥ 1 of followinga: use of predefined risk drugs; > 12 doses per day; > 6 diagnoses; BMI < 22
Heselmans [33] (2015) HRB 0b BE, general and specialized hospitals 66.6 600 R: Pharmacist
D: Ward physician
No 1 Nr >15a No ICU stay of at least three consecutive daya
Holland [34] (2005)/Pacini [53] (2007) LRB 6 GB, emergency wards 85.4 855 R: (study) pharmacist
D: pharmacist or GP
Yes 2 Yes > 80a ≥ 2a Discharged after emergency admission to own home or warden controlled accommodationa
Jameson [47] (1995) HRB 6 US, family health center Nr 64 R: Clinical pharmacist
D: Physician and pharmacist
Yes 2 Nr No ≥ 5 (see other) ≥ 2 of following risk factors: ≥ 5 drugs; ≥ 12 daily doses; ≥ 4 medication changes last 12 months.; >3 concurrent diseases; noncompliance; drugs requiring TDM
Jameson [50] (2001) HRB 6 US, private physicians 51.4 340 R: Clinical pharmacist
D: Physician and pharmacist
Yes 1 Nr No ≥ 5 No
Krska [75] (2001) HRB 3 GB, medical practices 74.8 381 R: Clinical pharmacist
D: GP and pharmacist
Yes 1 Nr ≥ 65a ≥ 4a ≥ 2 chronic conditionsa
Kwint [76] (2011) LRB 6 NL, community pharmacies 78.7 118 R: 2 research pharmacists
D: GP and community pharmacist
No 1 Nr ≥ 65a ≥ 5a living at homea; at least one drug had to be dispensed via an automated systema
Lenaghan [77] (2007) HRB 6 GB, general practices 84.5 136 R: study-pharmacist
D: GP and study- pharmacist
Yes 2 Nr > 80a ≥ 4a living in own homesa; ≥ 1 of following criteriaa: living alone; confused mental state, vision or hearing impairment; prescribed medicines associated with medication-related morbidity; prescribed >7 regular oral medicines
Lenander [35] (2014) HRB 12 SE, primary care centre 79.0 209 R: Geriatrics pharmacist
D: GP and patient
Yes 1 No > 65a ≥ 5a already scheduled for an appointment with a GPa
Lim [41] (2004) LRB 2 SG, geriatric outpatient clinic 79.6 126 R: pharmacist (of a pharmacist consult clinic)
D: primary physician
Yes 1 Nr No > 3 (see other) ≥ 1 of following criteria: TDM required; polypharmacy (>3 drugs or >9 doses per day); non-compliance; self-administered drugs that require psychomotor skill and co-ordination; nasogastric tube feeding; >1 doctor managing care; hospitalized within the last 6 months.
Lisby [36] (2010) LRB 3 DK, acute ward 80.2 100 R: Clinical pharmacist and a clinical pharmacologist
D: ward physicians
Yes 2 Nr ≥ 70a ≥ 1a expected to be admitted for more than 24 ha
Lisby [30] (2015) LRB 3 DK, regional hospital 80.4 108 R: Clinical pharmacist and a clinical pharmacologist
D: Orthopedic ward physicians
Yes 2 Nr > 65a ≥ 4a nonelective admission at orthopedic warda; expected in-hospital length of stay (LOS) of a minimum of 24 hoursa
Mannheimer [78] (2006) LRB 6 SE, clinical internal medicine 71.0 305 P: nurse and clinical pharmacologist
D: physician in charge
Yes 1 Nr No ≥ 2a patients who had been in hospital for < 24 h on Tue. to Fri. or for < 60 h on Mon. before a nurse screened the computerized medical recorda
Meredith [45] (2002) LRB 1.5 US, home care 80.3 317 P: nurse and clinical pharmacist
D: Physician
Yes 1 Yes ≥ 65a No had ≥ 1 of the four possible study medication problemsa; projected duration of home health care of ≥4 wksa
Meyer [79] (1991) HRB 12 US, VAMC Nr 312 R: study-physician (Group III, intensive intervention)
D: Physicians and nurse practitioners
No 1 Nr No ≥ 10 being followed by providers at the medical center
Michalek [39] (2014) LRB 0b DE, tertiary medical center 84c 114 R: Physicians
D: Physicians
No 1 Nr > 70a ≥ 3a admitted to the acute geriatric unita, stable health condition defined as no need for intermediate or intensive care unit treatmenta, had at least three diseases in need for drug treatmenta.
Milos [80] (2013) LRB 2 SE, primary health care centres 87.0 374 R: Clinical pharmacist
D: Physician
No 1 Yes ≥ 75a No users of the multi-dose drug dispensing system; living in nursing homes or their own homes with municipally provided home care
Olsson [46] (2012) HRB 12 SE, primary care 83.4 150 R: study-physician
D: Family physician
Yes 1 Nr ≥ 75a ≥ 5a living in ordinary homesa
Pit [44] (2007) HRB 12 AU, general practice Nr 849 R: Doctors
D: Doctors
Yes 1 Yes ≥ 65a No living in the communitya
Pope [43] (2011) LRB 6 GB, community hospitals 83.3 225 R: multidisciplinary panel
D: General practitioner
No 1 Nr No No permanent patients on the continuing-care wards
Sellors [52] (2001) LRB 6 CA, family physician practice 76.4 132 R: study-pharmacist
D: family physician
Yes 1 Yes ≥ 65a ≥ 4a No
Sellors [37] (2003) LRB 5 CAN, family physician practices 74.0 889 R: Pharmacist
D: Physician
Yes 1 Nr ≥ 65a ≥ 5a had been seen by their physician within; the past 12 monthsa; no evidence of cognitive impairment; could understand English.
Williams [40] (2004) HRB 1.5 US, general medicine clinic 73.5 140 R: Interdisciplinary team (consultant pharmacist, physician and nurse)
D: Primary physician
Yes 1 Nr ≥ 65a ≥ 5a ≥ 2 of the medications were potentially problematic drugs for common geriatric problemsa; cognitively intact a
Zermansky [48] (2001/2002) LRB 12 GB, general practices 74.0 1188 R: Study-clinical pharmacist
D: Pharmacist or GP
Yes 1 Nr ≥ 65a ≥ 1a No
Zermansky [81] (2006) LRB 6 GB, care homes 85.3 661 R: Study-clinical pharmacist
D: GP
Yes 1 Nr ≥ 65a ≥ 1a No
Zillich [31] (2014) LRB 2 US, home health care centers 73.0 895 R: Pharmacist
D: Patient, pharmacist, physician
Yes 3–4 Nr No No All new patients admitted into Medicare’s defined 60-day home health care episode were eligible. Medicare eligibility for home health benefits requires ordering services by a physician who reviews the need for a patient’s care and certifies that the patient is homebound
  1. mos. months, IG intervention group, Pts. patients, HCP healthcare professional, LRB low risk of bias, HRB high risk of bias, a combination of inclusion criteria (= “and”), Nr not reported, boutcome measures determined directly after discharge from ICU and/or discharge from hospital, TDM therapeutic drug monitoring, hr hours, cmedian, VAMC Veterans Affairs Medical Center