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Table 5 Mean change in clinical outcomes of T2DM patients at 1-year follow-up

From: Effectiveness of the EMPOWER-PAR Intervention in Improving Clinical Outcomes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care: A Pragmatic Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Clinical outcomes Intervention Control Model summaryb
Baseline mean (SE) Follow-up mean (SE) Changea (SE) Baseline mean (SE) Follow-up mean (SE) Changea (SE) P valuec
HbA1c (%) 8.4 (0.09) 8.3 (0.09) −0.1 (0.06) 8.4 (0.09) 8.5 (0.1) 0.2 (0.07) 0.003
(mmol/mol)d 68.3 67.2 −22.4 68.3 69.4 −21.3  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 139 (0.83) 139 (0.86) −0.3 (0.78) 138 (0.81) 140 (0.92) 1.7 (0.75) 0.08
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80 (0.42) 81 (0.44) 0.4 (0.43) 80 (0.44) 82 (0.5) 1.9 (0.47) 0.02
BMI (kg/m2) 27.6 (0.23) 27.8 (0.23) 0.2 (0.08) 28.5 (0.29) 28.6 (0.27) 0.1 (0.14) 0.64
WC (cm) 95 (0.47) 97 (0.56) 2 (0.33) 96 (0.56) 97 (0.64) 1.2 (0.37) 0.08
TC (mmol/L) 5.3 (0.06) 5.2 (0.05) −0.1 (0.05) 5.3 (0.05) 5.2 (0.05) −0.1 (0.05) 0.90
TG (mmol/L) 2.2 (0.07) 2.1 (0.05) −0.1 (0.06) 2 (0.06) 2 (0.05) −0.1 (0.05) 0.64
LDL-c ≤ 2.6 mmol/L 3.2 (0.05) 3.1 (0.05) −0.02 (0.04) 3.2 (0.05) 3.1 (0.04) −0.03 (0.04) 0.84
HDL-c ≥ 1.1 mmol/L 1.1 (0.01) 1.2 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01) 1.2 (0.02) 1.3 (0.02) 0.05 (0.02) 0.09
  1. Intention to treat analysis was performed to determine the mean change in clinical outcome measures
  2. aChange from baseline (standard error) unadjusted
  3. bMean change from baseline compared between treatment groups, adjusted for cluster effect using GEE
  4. cSignificance of intervention term in model
  5. dHbA1c in mmol/mol = [10.93 × HbA1c in %] – 23.5
  6. Bold data represents statistically significant results i.e P value < 0.05