Skip to main content

Table 3 Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of T2DM patients allocated to the intervention and control groups, n = 888

From: Effectiveness of the EMPOWER-PAR Intervention in Improving Clinical Outcomes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care: A Pragmatic Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Characteristics Intervention n = 471 Control n = 417 P value
Age, years; Mean (SE) 58 (0.48) 57 (0.5) 0.36
Gender; n (%)
 Males 180 (38.2) 149 (35.7) 0.44
 Females 291 (61.8) 268 (64.3)  
Ethnicity; n (%)
 Malays 242 (51.4) 190 (45.6) 0.26
 Chinese 71 (15.1) 90 (21.6)  
 Indians 157 (33.3) 130 (31.2)  
 Others 1 (0.2) 7 (1.6)  
Education attainment; n (%)
 No education 50 (10.6) 45 (10.8) 0.84
 Primary 187 (39.7) 157 (37.6)  
 Secondary 197 (41.8) 192 (46.1)  
 Tertiary 37 (7.9) 23 (5.5)  
Smoking status; n (%)
 Non-smoker 363 (77.1) 330 (79.1) 0.42
 Current smoker 66 (14.0) 50 (12.0)  
 Ex-smoker 42 (8.9) 37 (8.9)  
Comorbidity; n (%)
 Hypertension 349 (74.1) 329 (78.9) 0.09
 Hyperlipidaemia 221 (46.9) 233 (55.9) 0.01
 History of myocardial infarction, stroke or peripheral vascular disease 20 (4.2) 16 (3.8) 0.76
Duration of Medical Conditions, years; Mean (SE)
 Duration of diabetes mellitus 6.5 (0.28) 6.8 (0.29) 0.41
 Duration of hypertension 5.5 (0.32) 5.4 (0.32) 0.72
 Duration of hyperlipidaemia 1.8 (0.15) 2.6 (0.21) 0.001
Biochemical characteristics at baseline; mean (SE)
 HbA1c (%) 8.4 (0.09) 8.4 (0.09) 0.91
(mmol/mol)a 68.3 68.3  
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 139 (0.83) 138 (0.81) 0.60
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80 (0.42) 80 (0.44) 0.49
 BMI (kg/m2) 27.6 (0.23) 28.5 (0.29) 0.01
 WC (cm) 95 (0.47) 96 (0.56) 0.19
 TC (mmol/L) 5.3 (0.06) 5.3 (0.05) 0.65
 TG (mmol/L) 2.2 (0.07) 2 (0.06) 0.09
 LDL-c (mmol/L) 3.2 (0.05) 3.2 (0.05) 0.90
 HDL-c (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.01) 1.2 (0.02) 0.01
Proportion achieving biochemical targets at baseline; %
 HbA1c < 6.5%/< 48 mmol/mol 15.3 17.0 0.48
 BP ≤130/80 mmHg 24.8 25.9 0.72
 BMI < 23 kg/m2 15.7 12.7 0.20
 WC <90 cm (Men) 11.3 12.5 0.58
<80 cm (Women)
 TC ≤ 4.5 mmol/L 26.8 26.9 0.97
 TG ≤ 1.7 mmol/L 45.4 52.8 0.03
 LDL-c ≤ 2.6 mmol/L 31.9 31.2 0.82
 HDL-c ≥ 1.1 mmol/L 60.9 66.7 0.08
  1. aHbA1c in mmol/mol = [10.93 × HbA1c in %] – 23.5
  2. Bold data represents statistically significant results i.e P value < 0.05