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Table 4 Multilevel model, which includes variance in individual FP level and country-system level

From: Process quality indicators in family medicine: results of an international comparison

Dimension Indicator Constant FP-level variance Country-level variance ICC (%)
Continuity of care Inclusion of important health information in medical records 0.887 0.016 0.007 28.8
Regularity of keeping medical record files 0.773 0.135 0.038 22.2
Receiving records from previous primary care doctor 2.430 0.308 0.250 44.8
Receiving discharge reports from secondary care 3.767 1.012 0.434 30.0
Coordination of care Skill mix: disciplines in practice 0.223 0.006 0.036 84.9
Asking other specialists for advice 1.688 0.185 0.029 13.7
Collaboration with other providers 1.917 0.060 0.025 29.3
Community orientation Reporting potential public health threats in a particular district to an authority 3.255 0.295 0.043 12.7
Comprehensiveness of care Medical equipment available 0.534 0.018 0.040 68.3
First contact for common health problems 2.904 0.175 0.087 33.2
Treatment and follow-up of diseases 3.268 0.169 0.077 31.3
Medical technical procedures and preventive care 2.114 0.199 0.452 69.4
Healthcare promotion 0.193 0.019 0.009 30.8
  1. Notes: Multilevel models were estimated using raw data. Tests of significance for all models showed that the average (constant) statistically differed from zero (p = 0.000 < 0.05). ICC values were calculated as percentage of country level variance in total observed variance