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Table 3 Predisposing, Enabling and Needs Factors Associated with Treatment Adequacy

From: Generalized anxiety disorder in primary care: mental health services use and treatment adequacy

  Pharmacotherapya Psychotherapyb Overallc
(N = 357) (N = 345) (N = 307)
  Multivariate Associations (Final Model)   Multivariate Associations (Final Model)   Multivariate Associations (Final Model)
Bivariate Associations OR (95 % CI) P Bivariate Associations OR (95 % CI) P Bivariate Associations OR (95 % CI) P
P    P    P   
Predisposing factors
Gender (female) .613 0.95 (0.52-1.76) .873 .086 2.16 (1.00-4.68) .052 .526 1.32 (0.77-2.31) 0.311
Age group
  25-44 (ref)      1.00     
  18-24 .384    .475 0.90 (0.32-2.50) .836 .581   
  45-59 .181    .008 0.48 (0.25-0.92) .026 .938   
  60+ .806    .083 0.45 (0.12-1.72) .246 .598   
Education
  High school degree or less (ref)   1.00    1.00     
  Collegial degree .790 0.86 (0.46-1.60) .638 .705 0.75 (0.35-1.60) .455 .723   
  University degree .091 0.56 (0.28-1.31) .107 .003 1.96 (0.98-3.94) .057 .337   
Marital status
  Single (ref)   1.00        
  Married/Living together .853 0.91 (0.48-1.72) .775 .163    .568   
  Separated/Divorced/Widowed .001 2.99 (1.40-6.39) .005 .114    .160   
Enabling factors
Patient perception of income          
  Poor/Very poor (ref)      1.00     
  Sufficient .810    .437 1.18 (0.57-2.48) .651 .192   
  Financially secure .456    .018 2.03 (0.80-5.14) .134 .813   
Private medication insurance coverage (Yes) .302    .252    .483   
Private insurance coverage for complementary health services (Yes) .612    .068 1.16 (0.61-2.21) .658 .712   
Has a family physician (Yes) .026 3.11 (1.30-7.43) .011 .591    .069 1.90 (1.01-3.71) 0.051
GAD detected by health professional in the past 12 months (Yes) <.001 3.89 (2.18-6.94) <.001 .006 2.94 (1.56-5.52) .001 <.001 3.14 (1.98-5.04) <0.001
Needs factors
Comorbid major depression .028 1.68 (0.90-3.16) .106 .201    .009 1.82 (1.09-3.08) 0.024
Comorbid anxiety disorder .973    .022 0.51 (0.28-0.94) .031 .135   
Comorbid chronic illnesses
  0 .154    .805    .161   
  1 .121    .683    .104   
  2 .359    .602    .743   
  3 or more (ref)          
Random factor (Variance components)
Clinic ID (Intercept)   0.11    0.00    0.00  
  1. NOTES: Bivariate association’s threshold is p ≤ 0.10. If no ORs are written for a model, associate variables are not included in the corresponding model
  2. Gender is included in all final models (all non-significant)
  3. aIndicator defined as: adequate GAD medication at an adequate dosage, plus at least 3 consultations with a general practitioner or psychiatrist
  4. bIndicator defined as: psychotherapy with a CBT approach and ≥ 12 sessions of at least 15 minutes with the same healthcare professional
  5. cIndicator defined as: adequate pharmacologicala and/or adequate psychologicalb treatment